I begin by very briefly going over the history of Islamic expansion into Central Asia. The expansion in my view can be separated into two periods, the pre-Abbasid period and the Abbasid and post-Abbasid period. Pre-Abbasid period is the period before the Abbasid Empire took hold of expansion in Asia, and it can be characterized by fluctuation. Fluctuation in terms of which lands the Muslims had expanded into; many times the Muslims will defeat an army, the defeated armies regroup attack the Muslims and so on. The Post-Abbasid Empire period is characterized by stability and fruitfulness; the period after which turmoil had settled in the area and the people and land got a chance to flourish under the ruling of Islam. And while the beginnings of these effects does start in the Umayyad Empire before, the full results of Islam’s rule over Central Asia can be most clearly seen during the Abbasid era.
Expansion into Central Asia begins as early as the year 637 during the time of the Muslim Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab. At the time, the Muslim army leader Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays (1) in the battles with the Persian empire had pushed the last king of the Sasanian Empire Yazdegerd III all the way back to Amu River near Balkh at the Battle of Oxus River (4). The Amu River is in todays’ Turkmenistan and so is in the western side of Central Asia. The expans...
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8- Bai, Shouyi. (2002). an outline History of China (Vol2). Beijing: Foreign Languages Press
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