Home – Junk DNA
In the 1950’s when the process of DNA replication, transcription, and translation was first confirmed it was discovered that a large amount of the double helix didn’t actually contribute to the formation of protein1. This ‘Junk DNA’ wasn’t didn’t undergo transcription or translation and was ‘edited out’ of the RNA chain before it left the nucleus. For the most part this DNA was thought to be useless, a genetic hangover for characteristics which modern man no longer express. However, in the late 1990’s it was theorised that this ‘Non-coding DNA’ was actually an essential part of life, a theory which is now generally accepted to be correct2. Junk DNA controls several important parts of bodily function including gene expression and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA production.3
What is Junk DNA
Non-coding DNA can be contributed to the existence of introns. After the raw RNA is created from the existing strands of DNA, the chain of nucleotides undergoes several important changes before it is transported from the cell nucleus to the tRNA in the cytoplasm of the cell.4 A gene can divided into two categories, introns and exons, both of which are present in the pre-mRNA. Exons are the sections of RNA which are translated and ultimately expressed, while introns are areas of the gene which are spliced from the mature mRNA. Because mRNA is translated by ribosomes into polypeptides, only exons are coded for. This process works through a complex network of proteins and enzymes to insure that the final instructions for translation contains only the DNA which needs to be coded.5
The splicing of the pre-cursor mRNA splicing commences with a gathering of helper proteins at the boundary of the introns and...
... middle of paper ...
...th the promoter. Studies suggest these contacts are first achieved during the development of the foetus in embryonic cells.
Yet another use of this non coding DNA is for protection against damage to the chromosomes by using telomeres. Telomeres are regions of repetitive DNA sequences which are situated at the end of most eukaryotic and some prokaryotic chromosomes, which provide a defence against chromosomal deterioration which can occur during the process of DNA replication. Without these telomeres there is a significant risk of DNA unwinding during the process of mitosis 11.
However, after reading this website it can be inferred that so called ‘Junk DNA’ is actually integral to the function of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Though mislabelled when first discovered it is now know that without these sections of DNA the body cannot function.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Letting Go of Junk Food As many people lead busy lives, the immediate availability of such things as fast food, or junk food, have led most to seek convenience in food rather than emphasizing nourishment. The “on-the-go” attitude towards food that many people readily defend as being cheaper and more convenient has allowed us to become self-enablers to unhealthy habits. A large majority of the popular arguments for eating fast food or junk food are merely excuses to knowingly consume unhealthy food.... [tags: Nutrition, Cooking, Food, Junk food]
780 words (2.2 pages)
- A professional cook and award-winning cookbook author, Mark Bittman, in his article, “Is Junk Food Really Cheaper?”, which was published by the New York Times, he discusses and persuades his readers to cook a meal is indeed cheaper than buying fast food. Bittman purpose of this article is to explain the advantages of cooking at home and “the truth behind fast food”, such as it is not healthier and it is more expensive. The author does that by using logos, pathos, and ethos to help create an aggressive tone and support his claims that fast food is not good for you.... [tags: Nutrition, Food, Cooking, Junk food]
1155 words (3.3 pages)
- Let me start out by asking a couple questions, what do you know about health issues. The risk of getting a heart attack, diabetes or even shorten your lifespan. What do you know about health in general. “Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States” (Obesity and Mortality). Something that can be controlled is instead out of control because of certain foods and drinks people consume daily. Some could be problems at birth regarding the genes of a parent; also many times the environment causes influential issues towards certain people, and last but not least being an inactive person.... [tags: Nutrition, Obesity, Hypertension, Junk food]
1221 words (3.5 pages)
- Many people, with their busy schedules, go to fast food restaurants or stop at the gas station for a snack. People do this everyday without thinking if it is a good idea to eat there or not. It is faster than making yourself a home cooked meal. Despite its convenience, fast food can be very dangerous to us in the long run, Junk food is high in calories, but low in nutrients, filling your diet with junk food causes an array of problems to your body. This is why we should be aware of the risks and effects that junk food can give us so we can live a healthy lifestyle.... [tags: Nutrition, Fast food, Junk food, Food, Obesity]
1397 words (4 pages)
- Mark Bittman’s article “Is Junk Food Really Cheaper?” tells about how people are not really getting their money’s worth when it comes to consuming junk food. He does this by showing the differences between ordering a meal at McDonald’s and cooking a meal at home. The twenty-eight dollars that is spent to feed a family of four at McDonald’s can be put to use making a meal that could last for a couple of days and feed more than four (Bittman 660). Engineered to be addictive, hyper-processed food has a taste that makes people wanting more.... [tags: Food, Nutrition, Cooking, Food science]
1147 words (3.3 pages)
- Almost every cell in our body contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA can be defined as “a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms…” (University of Utah, 2014). In other words, DNA is a genetic material that contains the information of how cells work. DNA can be used to identify people because everyone has different DNA sequences and varying lengths of DNA. Every human cell contains 3 billion DNA base pairs. We share about 99.9% of our DNA, but the remaining 0.1% is unique.... [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Molecular biology]
1272 words (3.6 pages)
- Junk food is a favorite in this society. Fast food restaurants make it easier to grab food on the go. The greasier or sweeter food is the better. But junk food and sugary has caused many health problems. If there was a junk food tax, the government was target foods that contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, foods that the main source is salt, energy drinks, caffeinated beverages and foods, and soft drinks with high sugar content.(Todorova, Elena 1.1-1.4) I believe adding taxes to junk food could help the decrease many health problem, but I will do more research before I make a decision.... [tags: Nutrition, Junk food, Food, Tax]
1424 words (4.1 pages)
- Unhealthy Eating. What is junk food you might ask. Well it is food that lacks nutritional value and frequently high in calories, sugar, or fat. Junk food is also more convenient and takes little to no time to prepare. When you mix unhealthy eating with junk food together you get one of America’s most leading causes of death today, and surprisingly not only in children but in adults as well. Americans think a good healthy meal is a greasy double cheese burger with a medium fry and a large diet coke on the side.... [tags: Nutrition, Junk food, Food, Obesity]
1058 words (3 pages)
- The essay Junking Junk Food by Judith Warner, brings to the audience 's attention the wicked problem of how there has been a decline in Americans health. Warner’s information speaks loudly about the effects of the government trying to limit types and amount of food we consume as a nation. The Obama administration tried to enforce a healthy lifestyle among the citizens by focusing on the youth and taking away sugar options for them. These efforts by the administration are being mocked by Warner because without the government controlling what we eat, we cannot make the proper decisions ourselves.... [tags: Nutrition, Obesity, Junk food, Health]
1168 words (3.3 pages)
- It is 9oclock at night, you went to school from 8am to 12pm and then you went to work from 1pm to 9pm what is the first thing on your mind; cooking, homework, McDonalds or what about just sleep. This is an average day for me every day and the only thing I think about is getting my shoes off and just sitting down to relax. I don’t feel like standing over a stove or making anything my first thought is the drive thru for a fast and easy meal. The time is takes to go grocery shopping compared to sitting in my car and waiting for my food to be handed to me is a big difference.... [tags: Essays on Junk Food 2014]
610 words (1.7 pages)
- The Principles Of Freedom Of An Individual
- The Effects Of Bullying On The Workplace
- Don 't You Kidding? Everything 's Changed
- Australia 's Racial Vilification Act ( 1975 )
- Chinese Immigrants During The Australian Gold Rush
- My Experience At The Cable 's Kindergarten Classroom At Conewago Elementary School