When analysing science and the concepts and arguments relating to scientific theory, it is important to separate an argument that has its foundations in science and that which sounds scientific but really should be labelled as pseudo-science. The distinction between the two was first analysed by Karl Popper, who viewed scientific theory in terms of testability and falsifiability. By reviewing and analysing arguments for the intelligent design (ID) theory and Darwinism we can deduce whether or not these theories have solid arguments or if they fall under the category of unfalsifiable. Further analysis of the two theories arguments can help us see if they commit any fallacies and have rational arguments.
Scientific theory by definition seeks to explain observed phenomena by stating the causal reasons that led to the event. The central component of the theory must adhere to the principles of testability and falsifiability, it must be stated in a way that it makes a prediction about the world and provide an explanation for observed phenomena. Falsification of a theory, however, can only come about through genuine tests that seek to disprove it, i.e.: Science cannot prove that unfalsifiable claims are not true. Consider the statement, “Bigfoot lives in the Yellowstone National Park in America”. To prove this theory as false, you would have to not find it after searching everywhere.
However, not finding it does not disprove the theory, as people who have put forward this theory could further argue that, “you just haven’t found it yet”. Certain Ad hoc statements, special ...
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...f evidence denial, in which evidence that is discovered, say of a new fossil that should contradict evolution is incorporated into the theory to prove it valid.
While both ID and Darwinism are theories that make claims on the natural world, through analysis it seems that testability and falsifiability are mainly features of Darwinism and not ID. Statements and arguments made in ID are seen as fallacious and with little physical evidence to substantiate claims made about the birth of the universe and existence. Darwinism, however, makes more testable and falsifiable claims and uses evidence based exploration to support itself and also makes amendments to its theory. This, however, is not a feature of ID which limits itself to only its original form of argument.
Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, 04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005). Context, pp. 24–25
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