Computed tomography (CT) scan data are quantified and processed to provide reliable anatomic information about tumor shape and location and also the progression of disease46. Estimating the enhancement of a tumor is essential for the accurate evaluation of tumor response. In order to calculate net enhancement, both enhanced and non-enhanced scans need to be acquired. One technique is dual energy CT(DECT ) technique that helps to differentiate materials by the material decomposition principle47. The other technique is dual phase CT (DPH CT) which accounts for the different optimal scanning times and is usually used for the pancreas and the liver. Signal enhancement is proportional to dye concentration 48.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) produces a set of tomographic images showing slices through the patient in which each point of an image depends on the micro-magnetic properties of the tissue corresponding to that point. Since different types of tissue such as healthy and cancerous tissues have different local magnetic properties, MRI images demonstrate high sensitivity to anatomical variations. MRI competes with CT in many clinical applications where motion cannot be controlled or in anatomical areas where involuntary patient motion occurs49. Patients with brain tumors are routinely evaluated with this technique which only captures the burden of the tumor’s diffusion profile. Spec...
... middle of paper ...
...or of resistance to radiotherapy and some chemotherapeutic drugs65.
Single Photon Emission CT
A single photon emission CT (SPECT) scan provides a blood perfusion map of brain lesions. It helps to differentiate tumors from inflammatory diseases and infectious. It is also used to determine if certain tumors are resistant to specific types of targeted therapy. Absolute quantitation of radioactivity concentrations is not as straightforward with SPECT as it is with PET because a SPECT radionuclide, cannot provide the temporal or spatial resolution obtained with PET66.
For more information about imaging modalities readers are referred to an excellent review by Kurdziel et al.67. It is noticeable that for image-based tumor studies, segmentation and registration are important issues. Very good reviews about these issues are presented by Balafar et al.68 and Bauer et al.69
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