Essay on Is Conceptual Critiques Relevant for Psychology?

Essay on Is Conceptual Critiques Relevant for Psychology?

Length: 1463 words (4.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

We shall consider Skinner’s Operant Conditioning theory as another type of example on Conceptual Critiques (Skinner, 1963). His theory states that the best way to understand a behavior is to look at the association made between the behavior and the consequence of that behavior. Although Skinner’s primary interest was in human behavior, most of his research was done on animals using laboratory apparatus well known as the Skinner box.
Hence, in his experiment, Skinner placed rats in the Skinner box and observed its’ behaviors. Initially, these rats would be randomly moving around exploring, and would usually press the bar accidently. At this point, a food pellet would drop into the tray. He observed that if a hungry rat receives a pellet of food when it presses a lever after, maybe 2 minutes have elapsed since the last pellet, then its response rate increases with the passage of time. In other words, after the first incident of the food pellet dropping into the tray, the rate of the rats pressing the bar rises dramatically and remains high until the rats hunger were satisfied. Thus, this study showed a clear association made between the behavior and the consequence of that behavior. In this case, the consequence of a behavior encouraged the repetition of that behavior also known as positive reinforcement.
On the other hand, Anderson, Bothell, Byrne, Douglass, and Lebiere (2004), commented that Skinner did not show interest on why the organism behaved in this way and instead he was satisfied with knowing what kind of behavior could be expected from various organisms including humans when given a fixed-interval schedule. This comment is a misleading distortion as it overlooks Skinner’s efforts to explain the gradual increase in res...

... middle of paper ...

...ard a richer view of the scientific method: The role of conceptual analysis. American Psychologist , 62 (7), 671.
Maltby, J., Day, L., & Macaskill, A. (2010). Personality, individual differences and intelligence. Pearson Education.
Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of research in science teaching , 2 (3), 176-186.

Roy, B. (1993). Decision science or decision-aid science? European journal of operational research , 66 (2), 184-203.
Siegel, L. (1982). The development of quantiy concepts: Perceptual and linguistic factors. Children's logical and mathematical cognition , 123-155.
Skinner, B. F. (1963). Operant behavior. American Psychologist , 18 (8), 503.
Spelke, E. (1991). Physical knowledge in infancy: Reflections on Piaget’s theory. he epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and cognition.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Conceptual and Historical Issues in Psychology Essay

- For a long time in history, studies of history of psychology have been done in three distinct ways. These domains were as follows: consciousness, psyche, behavior and mental life but every case stood on its own. Psychology was in this case the knowledge domain. Moreover, psychology was composed of various accounts. There was also the case of the society that was composed of views of the world or culture or industrialization. Although the history between these disciplines is not viewed sometimes, there are social aspects that are studied on how they are related to psychology....   [tags: Psychology ]

Powerful Essays
1459 words (4.2 pages)

Essay on Cognitive Psychology : Psychology And Psychology

- “Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and thinking.” The processes of cognitive psychology also utilize the aspects of other psychological disciplines including: educational, social, personality, abnormal, developmental, and economic psychology. A cognitive psychologist’s main objective is to assess a person’s mental ability. My primary interest in researching this particular field in psychology is due to the fact that I am interested in the brain and how the brain causes us to become who we are....   [tags: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition]

Powerful Essays
1015 words (2.9 pages)

Critique of Thank You for Smoking? Essay

- Critique of “Thank You for Smoking…?” “Thank You for Smoking…?” is an article written by Peter Brimelow about the benefits of smoking. Brimelow provides some very clear points which are well addressed. Even though I do not agree with the subject that “smoking, in a way, is good for you,” (141) I think Peter Brimelow did a thorough job of making his opinions credible to the reader. Major Claim and Grounds This essay is a good example of a deductive essay because it moves from generalizations to specific instances (McFadden, 2003)....   [tags: Critiques]

Powerful Essays
1035 words (3 pages)

Abstract And Conceptual Values Of The Human Body On A Cellular Level Essay example

- There are infinite reasons to make art, and once one decides to begin, there are just as many mediums to choose from. Art can encompass anything from poetry to sculpture to photography to painting to acting. There are many ideas about what constitutes a piece of art. Many of these ideas relate to aesthetic and conceptual values of a piece. I personally prefer making visual art, and recently two dimensional art in particular. Just as there are numerous ways to can create art, inspiration can be drawn from nearly anything....   [tags: Art, Visual arts, Conceptual art, Cell]

Powerful Essays
778 words (2.2 pages)

Post-Post Critiques of Racism Essay

- Carrie Mae Weems and Hank Willis Thomas are two contemporary artists who are defying contemporary social and political categories and taking art photo into an engage era. The essays by Annie E Coombes provide a critical analysis of how the contemporary scene is moving beyond categories of post modern, and post race. Both are efforts to rescue contemporary artists who are dealing with forms of oppression from being described as old fashion or out of date. Carrie Mae Weems is an African American photographer....   [tags: Racism ]

Powerful Essays
956 words (2.7 pages)

Essay on Exploring Psychology Careers : Psychology

- Exploring Psychology Careers Erin McLinsky PSY/305 April 25, 2016 Dr. Sheila Rapa Exploring Psychology Careers There are numerous benefits to students who decide to major in psychology. According to Landrum and Davis (2007), some of the benefits to majoring in psychology include, “having a well-defined vocabulary and basic knowledge of the critical subject matter in psychology; valuing the intellectual challenges required to use scientific thinking and the disciplined analysis of information to evaluate alternative courses of action; taking a creative and amiable skeptic approach to problem solving; applying psychological principles to personal, social, and organizational issues at work...   [tags: Psychology, Clinical psychology]

Powerful Essays
1230 words (3.5 pages)

Essay about Positive Psychology : Negative Psychology

- Positive Psychology is the scientific study of human flourishing, and an applied approach to optimal functioning. It has also been defined as the study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals, communities and organisations to thrive. (What Is Positive Psychology) Unfortunately, people can often be confused about the true characterization of positive psychology. Some even do not recognize positive psychology as not a “real” branch of psychology at all, because they misinterpret the definition....   [tags: Positive psychology, Psychology, Abraham Maslow]

Powerful Essays
1052 words (3 pages)

The Theory Of Psychology And Individual Psychology Essays

- Philosophical Analysis Paper Without much debate, the field of psychology has continued to evolve as psychological schools of thought work hard to provide structure and guidance for successful treatment in the clinical setting. However, which schools of thought best capture the human experience. Furthermore, how are these psychological perspectives navigated through the philosophical framework. For example, cognitive psychology has heavily influenced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) by providing a valuable framework for human behavior by detecting the faulty thought processing that allows the clients to discover the necessary coping skills to address their issues....   [tags: Psychology, Thought, Mind, Cognition]

Powerful Essays
2993 words (8.6 pages)

Humanistic Psychology And Existential Psychology Essay

- Humanistic and Existential Psychology are influential of each other, both include the “meaning of our existence, the role of free will, and the uniqueness of each human” (Burger, 2015) This paper will review three articles written by influential psychologists of their time, Maslow, Rogers, and Frankl. The review of each will include a summary, how well the contents connects to the humanistic or existential psychology, and if their ideas still have a relevant application in today’s environment. The first article for review by Viktor Frankl, an existential psychologist, Logotherapy and Existentialism, was written in 1967....   [tags: Psychology, Psychotherapy, Existentialism]

Powerful Essays
1040 words (3 pages)

Biological Psychology Essay

- Bio-Psychologists study the principles of biology as it relates to the comprehension of psychology in the field neuroscience that underlies ones emotions, ideology, and actions (Brittanica). Based upon the conduction of research, the relationship between the brain and ones behavior extends to the physiological process in one’s intellect. Scientists are cognizant that neurotransmitters function as a significant role in mood regulation and other aspects of psychological problems including depression and anxiety....   [tags: Psychology ]

Powerful Essays
1432 words (4.1 pages)