For an experiment to be accurate it needs to be reliable and valid. As defined in the textbook Personality Theories by Bem P. Allen, reliability is “the degree to which test results are repeatable” (Allen, 2006). If there is consistency in results the test is considered reliable. Consistency in an experiment relies on the independent and dependent variables. To yield accurate data the test must measure the subject precisely. In order for an experiment to be considered accurate the data must be both reliable and valid.
Describe briefly an example of how you can tell a person is stuck in each of Freud’s stages of development.
Freud’s four stages of development are oral, anal, phallic and genital. As discussed by Ritt-Olson on the online lecture, each of the stages have the following three aspects: physical focus, psychological theme and character type (2015).
The first stage is oral and it begins from birth and ends at 18 months. During this stage an infant self-preservation is dependent on “nourishment received orally” (Allen, 2006, p.28). An infant 's physical focus is on the mouth, lip and tongue because whatever is related to self-preservation consequently promotes pleasure. Freud believed an individual may experience fixation due to impairment of development at a particular stage and regressed to behavior, feelings and thought characteristics of the earlier fixated stage due to frustration (Allen, 2006). During the oral stage adults who are stuck experience the following two personality types: oral-receptive or oral aggressive. Oral receptive are “susceptible and gullible and [form] relationship characterized by dependency on others” (Allen, 2006, p.30). ...
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...he article Disarming Jealousy in Couples Relationships a Multidimensional Approach by Michele Scheinkman and Denis Werneck describes jealousy as a complex reaction stemmed by fear of losing their significant other to real or an imagined rival. As described in the article romantic relationships may experience jealousy for the following two theories: confusing relational experience or qualified by gender and culture. Confusing relational experiences is similar to Horney theory it is based on fear. However, the individual fears losing their loved one to a rival because they believe they possess qualities he or she does not have (Scheinkman and Werneck, 2010). The second theory culture impacts the manifestation of jealousy. Depending on the culture or social group jealousy may be repressed or expressed by the individual. Today’s theories incorporate extraneous factors.
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