The Iran-Iraq War occurred from 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988. The conflict was a conventional war fought by two different states: the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Iraqi Republic. Notably, two key non-state actors participated in the war: Iran 's government found allies in the oppressed Iraqi Kurdish ethnic group, who fought in conjunction with Iranian offensives. Iraq aligned itself with the Mujaheddin of Iran, who opposed the Iranian government. The conflict took place along the Iran-Iraq border, in South-West Asia. Limited combat also occurred in the Persian gulf, where both states navies attacked enemy oil infrastructure and tankers. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein launched the war chiefly due to increasingly violent border disputes. The result of the war was a status quo ante bellum with both sides reeling. Other states had a great interest in the war because Iraq counterbalanced ideologically-radical Iran and ensure stability in the region. Iran had undergone the 1979 revolution, where the Iranian people overthrew the pro-western monarchy and install an anti-western theocracy, lead by Islamic cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. Further, the region provided nearly 50% of the worlds oil reserves and therefore is key to the global economy. Thus, the USSR, UAE, France, United States, UK, Saudi Arabia and Jordan supported Iraq to ensure this balance of ideological power locally was maintained and the supply of oil was maintained, while only Syria and North Korea supported Iran.
The Initial Iraqi offensive, 1980-82
Iraqi forces launched a full-scale invasion on 22 September 1980, with the Iraqi air force attempting a bold preemptive strike on Iranian airfields. Initial ground attacks saw some success, but the d...
... middle of paper ...
... as the Iraqi military was now free to fully focus on quelling their rebellion. The Kurds sought their own state, and the war gave them an opportunity to renew their uprising. This resulted in a genocide of 190,000 Kurds by the Iraqi military. Iran found itself increasingly isolated from the world, as no major state had been willing to support Iran during the war; the international community was quick to fund the fight against Iran, in fact. The key long term consequence was the emergence of a very powerful Iraqi military in the wake of the war, despite massive government debt. Iraq would invade Kuwait in 1990 to try and annul a large debt, and acquire oil fields. This resulted in the First Gulf War. The conflict solidified the Revolutionary regime within Iran, as the war provided the citizens of Iran with a common enemy and a cause to rally around amidst instability.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Iran-Iraq War: The Iran-Iraq War occurred from 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988. The conflict was a conventional war fought by two different states: the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Iraqi Republic. Notably, two key non-state actors participated in the war: Iran 's government found allies in the oppressed Iraqi Kurdish ethnic group, who fought in conjunction with Iranian offensives. Iraq aligned itself with the Mujaheddin of Iran, who opposed the Iranian government. The conflict took place along the Iran-Iraq border, in South-West Asia.... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein]
1063 words (3 pages)
- The History of Two Nations at War Iran and Iraq’s relations have been hostile since the Iran-Iraq war, also known as the first Persian Gulf War. The war lasted from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century 's longest conventional war. Saddam, who was the 5th president of Iraq, was so amused with the continuous battles that he made it a point to have the Iraqi 25-dinar note display the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah on its currency. For nearly nine years, both countries suffered millions of casualties and lost countless amounts of dollars in destruction (Karsh, 2002).... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein]
1017 words (2.9 pages)
- The Iran-Iraq War was the prolonged war from 1980 to 1988 between two nations, Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq. This competitive rivalry between Iraq and Iran goes back to the days of the Persian empire and the Ottoman Turkish empire. “From the 1920s onwards the nominally independent states of Iraq and Iran sustained historically animosities in changed circumstances, at first still under the direct influence of Britain, and later (after 1958) as truly independent countries pursuing their respective national interests”.... [tags: Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Iraq]
1205 words (3.4 pages)
- Impact of Cold War on Iran-Iraq War The Iran- Iraq War was the prolonged war from 1980 to 1988 between two nations, Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq. This competitive rivalry between Iraq and Iran goes back to the days of the Ottoman Turkish empire and the Persian empire. “From the 1920s onwards the nominally independent states of Iraq and Iran sustained historically animosities in changed circumstances, at first still under the direct influence of Britain, and later (after 1958) as truly independent countries pursuing their respective national interests”.... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi]
1487 words (4.2 pages)
- The war between Iraq and Iran was a war between two rival states with different religious/fundamental views, ethnic backgrounds, historical ethnic and border tensions, and power-hungry national leadership who were striving for the position as the dominant Persian Gulf state (Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)). This war is significant for several reasons: it the longest conventional war in the 20th century (lasting from 1980 to 1988), it was witness several unique and horrific tactics and it set the stage for Iraq’s eventual invasion of Kuwait (Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)).... [tags: Contributing Factors, Results]
744 words (2.1 pages)
- If Hussein would have waited and had given a formal declaration of war on Iran, things could have turned out differently for the Iraqis. The Iranians would have had time to gather their forces and defend their borders more adequately and caused a lot more resistance for the Iraqis to push through. However, this could have been either disastrous or a big victory for the Iraqis. The now unified and strong border defense could have wiped out the attacking Iraqi force and would have been a devastating blow to the Iraqis from which it would have been tough to recover.... [tags: Iran, Iraq, Iraq War, Iran–Iraq War]
706 words (2 pages)
- Lasting for eight years, the Iran-Iraq War is widely considered to be the longest lasting war of the 20th Century. Also the bloodiest, it was initiated by Iraq, with little consideration for the intended outcome. The First Persian Gulf War had been smoldering for centuries over a bed of coals fueled by differing religious beliefs, and economical and political views, with encouragement from Third Party countries. Finally sparked by an intended land grab, neither side appeared to have considered the financial nor human cost racked up during hostilities.... [tags: modern Middle Eastern history]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- Iran-Iraq War The eight year Iran-Iraq War was, by the standards of international conflicts, a very long one. It lasted longer than both World War I and World War II. In this conflict, the two most powerful states in the Persian Gulf, Iran and Iraq, who were the world’s largest producers of petroleum, were locked in mortal combat and appeared intent on destroying each other. The war began when Iraq invaded Iran, simultaneously launching an invasion by air and land into Iranian territory on September 1980 and ended with a United Nations brokered ceasefire in 1988.... [tags: World History ]
1600 words (4.6 pages)
- The Iran-Iraq War While the Iran-Iraq War during the 1980's may have permanently altered the course of progress in Iran and Iraq, the war also altered the resulting permanent involvement of the rest of the world in the middle-east. The rich and complicated history in Iraq has established numerous cultural and ethnic traditions that all play a part in where the country is today. The Iran-Iraq War brought into focus some of those traditions and how they conflicted, while also bringing Iraq and its economic situation into the spotlight.... [tags: War Middle East Essays]
3026 words (8.6 pages)
- Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) Hypothesis Probably the most logical explanation is that there has been a conflict that is decades old, that comes from, religious differences to territorial and power ambitions. This war is a war that is not going to stop until both countries solve their internal affairs, because the historical background that this two countries have is not an easy one. I think that the only way to fully achieve peace between these two countries is, for them to come to an agreement regarding the territories, and another one to respect each other’s religions.... [tags: essays research papers]
638 words (1.8 pages)