During World War I, Iran occupied by British and Russian forces despite the fact that had declared its neutrality. In 1919, Britain attempted to establish a pro – British government in Iran. Therefore, they arranged a military coup to bring Reza Khan to power. He was an officer at the Persian Cossack Brigade who became the hereditary Shah of the new Pahlavi dynasty (1925).
Reza Shah Pahlavi’s rule lasted for almost 16 years. He started to modernize Persia (Iran) and secularize politics. Under his reign, the central government reasserted its authority over the tribes and provinces.
During World War II, Iran played a key role in supplying various goods for the Soviet Union. Britain was helping the Soviets through the Iranian soil against there enemy, Germany.
On other hand, Reza Shah, whose popularity had degraded as a result of granting some privileges to a British oil company, decided to get German support for his modernization plans in Iran.
British and Soviet governments considered Iran’s relations with Germany a threat for themselves. In August, 1941, British and Indian forces from Iraq and Soviet forces from the north occupied Iran. In September, the British forced Reza Shah to step down from power in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1979.
Mohammad Reza Shah’s Monarchy
Iranian politicians and press had not given any weight to Mohamad Reza Shah concerning his political activity, and so he then decided to enter into the political scene of Iran. Having inherited the commanders...
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...d with signing of the Algiers accord on March 6, 1975.The economic improvements could not target the vast majority of the Iranians. It just helped the culmination of widespread religious – led protests toward the late 1970s.The opposition was also against Shah’s rule and programs, especially SAVAK , the detested security and intelligence service.
Ultimately, In the last years of 1970s, people outpoured into the streets to publicity show their oppositions in the street demonstrations. Material law was declared in September 1978 for all major cities.
Shah had realized the large extent of his diminishing popularity and power – base. So, he fled Iran on January 16, 1979. No western country replied to Iranians’ hunger for democracy and improvements.
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