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There is much debate about IQ tests. There are many definitions of intelligence and no one agreed on a specific definition. Triarchic theory one of definitions which is describe intelligence categories in three aspects involved: analytical, creative and practical (Sternbery, 1958). Some researches emphasize that IQ tests are meaningless and measures intelligence as Cohen (1991) believes that IQ scores can predict if people success in school and work or not. However, other researches argue that IQ tests is meaningless and it not possible to determined intelligence. For example, Rawat (2001) clime that IQ scores are affected by many factors. As a result, people could not depended on IQ results. This essay will argue that taking IQ tests as a measures of intelligence is insignificant. Although, it also might present some benefits. In order to demonstrate this the essay first will discuss IQ scores are able to change and it is not a good criterion to depend on. Second, it will argue that there are many factors affected on intelligence such as heredity and socio-economic factors. Moreover, it will show the differences between success and intelligence. Furthermore, it will focus on using IQ tests to discriminate between people.
1. High IQ scores do not prove intelligence:
One of the reasons of IQ tests are meaningless is the obtaining high scores in the IQ test is not enough of measuring intelligence. According to Rawat (2001) high scores in the IQ test do not mean someone is intelligent. Furthermore, Chon (1991) point out people can change IQ scores when they take the test more than once, also they could know the main idea of the test, how the test works, what procedures, how they can answer the questions. As a result, they can change their scores to a high level by preparation. Indeed, it could not be a good criterion of measure of intelligence because the result is not fixed and always changes. Goleman (1998) and Salovey and Mayer (1990) mention that emotional intelligence is the important ability to express and understand emotional knowledge. As a result, IQ scores cannot be accounted by IQ test because it could not support and covered the emotional intelligence's side. Therefore, it seems clear that attaining high scores in the IQ tests are not reliable results and cannot evaluate intelligence significantly.
2. Different factors can affect intelligence:
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3. Success and intelligence are not the same:
IQ tests which is take to enter schools or have a job are meaningless because success and intelligence are not the same. According to (text 4) IQ tests have a big threshold to enter schools, although there are many differences between intelligence and success. The example of Terman shows that Nobel Prize winners who are geniuses do not have high scores in IQ tests. Therefore, it is possible to take say intelligence is not important to make people successful in life. As a result, it not possible to take the IQ test as a good criterion on real success in life.
However, Cohen (1991) argued that IQ tests are a good measure to predict success in school and work. It is clear to know the educational background and have an information about people. Although, the predictions could be not perfect but that is better than not having any information. Also, some psychologists consider IQ tests a good prediction of success and it better than others.
One the other hand, intelligence is not only thing which people need to success. According to (text 4) Terman think that many geniuses had a good job but he surprised also failures people had earn good income and they might be better than others. It necessary to not depende on IQ test as measure of intelligence and success because it not possible to pass judgement on people whether are successful in their life or not. People should be given the chance to enter school or have a job instead of taking IQ tests.
4. IQ tests are used to discriminate against people:
Using IQ tests to discriminate that affect on educational background between certain races makes IQ tests insignificant(Cohen, 1991). According to "the Bell Curve" cites in Rawat (2001) IQ scores show that white people have a higher scores than black people. The discrimination between nationalities by IQ tests has negative effect and it could be an injustice. Also, the generalization of result deprive black people of chances to prove their intelligence. For example, in (text 4) Schwartz indicates that the university of Michigan law schools want the student have a high IQ scores and also care about the backgrounds. White students had higher IQ scores because they had a better educational background than others. After that the school decide to look at other student and give them chance to learn well like white students. The results were surprising because the other students doing as well as white students and they were successful. Schwartz emphasizes that the other people were clever and smart like white people.
In conclusion, this essay has shown that IQ tests are not accurate to determine the amount of people's intelligence and people cannot be relied on IQ tests as a measure. That because there are many factors affected on IQ tests such as heredity, socio-economic factors, taking the exams more times, the linked between success and intelligence and using the test badly as discriminate between people . It seems that it difficult to determined IQ scores and people cannot know the able to know the real amount of intelligent. Although, IQ test have some positive aspects as predictions for the intelligence of people. Therefore, it is clear that make many categories of tests to evaluate the intelligence in a right way. As a result, people can measure intelligence by choosing the special exam to determent a specific intelligence. After that happen it could be say people can take depend on the scores and people can evaluated intelligence significantly.