This experiment is monitoring the reaction of sodium hydroxide and crystal violet using spectroscopy. Graphical methods will be used to determine the kinetic rate law, rate constant and activation energy for the reaction.
The order of hydroxide was determined by the varying the initial concentration of hydroxide in runs 1 and 2. We used the isolation method, which calls for having much higher concentrations of one reactant then the other, in this case the concentration of NaOH being much higher than the concentration of Crystal Violet. This method allows to be converted to where . kobs was determined by linearizing the data for absorbance with regards to time, with the slope of the linearized graph being kobs. The equation for reaction 1 was then divided by the same equation for reaction 2, allowing for a calculation of n which was approximately 1.
The order of crystal violet was calculated by graphing absorbance with regard to time for the first set of data. Since the spectrometer was set to detect crystal violet and according to Beers law concentration is proportional to absorbance, this data is proportional to the concentration of Crystal Violet. In plots 1-3 various operations (x, ln(x), 1/x) were applied to the data, in order to find the most linear graph of the data. Plot 2 was the most linear, with an R2=0.999, significantly higher than the other two (R2=0.944 and 0.914). Since plot 2 was a graph of ln(x) vs time, this implied that crystal violet was first order in this reaction, compliant with the integrated rate law for first order reactions.
There were several possible errors in calculating this data. The first possible source of error is the assumption that [OH-] does ...
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... to a higher percentage of collisions overcoming the activation energy, and thus a quicker reaction and higher k.
Once source of error for the experiment was in the measurement of temperature throughout the experiment. There could have been errors in the thermometer, in addition to the fact that temperature was only measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Thus the temperatures used do not account for the fact that the samples, particularly the heated ones, were not constant during the experiment, and simply uses an average temperature. This introduces a fair amount of error and approximation into the experiment. Thus it is not a surprise that the R2 value of Plot 5 (ln(k) versus ) is only 0.968. Thus these inaccuracies in Temperature introduce some error into the calculation of activation energy, but it is probably at least within an order of magnitude.
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