Contemporary scholars have multiple methods of analyzing why the international system experiences periods of order and disorder. However, those explanations dealing with international institutions and the interactions among nations serve to best explain the level of order around the globe. One can therefore examine various facets of international order to glean a better understanding of the effects behind world order. Such facets include interpretations of world order, the current level of American power, and the role of rising and resurgent national powers. Furthermore, analyzing challenges to world order in key international regions, understanding the problems of effective global governance, and recognizing disputes over the norms underlying contemporary world order can further elucidate the conflicting forces between global order and disorder.
Before analyzing the current forces behind global order and disorder, one must first understand the most accepted interpretations regarding the nature of world order along with competing approaches on how to construct such an order. Two major schools of thought govern approaches to international order: liberalism and realism.
Believers in a liberal theory of international relations tend to primarily view global politics through the for...
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... their desire to spread democratic values and international law. Wilsonianism can thus lead to extreme American aggression when taken too far, as certain hawkish Wilsonians do not even shrink away from using violence to spread democracy (because democracy is supposedly the sole guarantor of permanent peace in the world) (Kissinger 2014). The most common recent example of such maximalism took the form of the Bush Doctrine, which adopted the radical approach of an invasion of Iraq in order to instigate regime change and promote democracy in the Middle East (Mearsheimer 2011). This maximalist approach to American foreign policy thus contributes to global disorder as it calls for aggressive intervention to further American ideals, which oftentimes can pit America against many other countries (such as when hardly any great powers supported the American invasion of Iraq).
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