Essay about Interaction of Methemoglobin with Methotrexate

Essay about Interaction of Methemoglobin with Methotrexate

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Hemoglobin is a metalloprotein that conveys oxygen [1] from lungs to the peripheral tissues such as muscles, liver and intestines. Human adult hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric blood protein, consisting of two pairs of  and β polypeptide chains. The hemoglobin tetramer contains a total of 6 Tryptophanes. The intrinsic fluorescence of Hb originates mainly from a Trp residue located near to the heme moiety. Methotrexate, a well-known inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase [2] an enzyme which inhibits the synthesis of new DNA, was widely used in the treatment of various cancers.
Since 1985, MTX has been used as an effective drug in rheumatoid arthritis [3][4][5], psoriasis [6][7], acute lymphoblastic leukemia [8] lymphoma, head and neck cancer [9], breast cancer [10] and osteosarcoma [11]. Additionally, MTX-conjugated AuNPs distinguished by cytotoxic effects on human choriocarcinoma cells [12] and MTX liposome were used as oral drug delivery carriers [13].
A LC-MS/MS based method was recently used to estimate MTX polyglutamate concentration in the red blood cell [14]. Recent spectroscopic studies reveal the interaction of MTX with nucleic acids [15] or serum albumin [16].
Various spectroscopic methods have been used to study the interaction of small organic molecules with proteins. Several studies reveal the interaction of flavonoids [17][18][19], dyes [20][21][22], allosteric effectors [23] or other organic compounds [24][25] with hemoglobin.
Moreover, some studies focused on interaction of various antibiotics as oxytetracycline [26], chloramphenicol [27] and cephalosporines [28] with hemoglobin:
In particularly, hemoglobin interacts with several drugs: docetaxel [29], alprazolam-a sedative and antidepressant drug [30], tramo...


... middle of paper ...


...anda, and P. Karmakar, “Alprazolam induced conformational change in hemoglobin.,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 23–9, Jun. 2007.
[31] S. Tunç, A. Cetinkaya, and O. Duman, “Spectroscopic investigations of the interactions of tramadol hydrochloride and 5-azacytidine drugs with human serum albumin and human hemoglobin proteins.,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B., vol. 120, pp. 59–65, Mar. 2013.
[32] J. R. Lakowicz, “Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy BT - Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” in Princ. Fluoresc. Spectrosc., Springer New York, 2006, p. 954.
[33] G. M. Artmann, L. Burns, J. M. Canaves, A. Temiz-Artmann, G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, S. Chien, and C. Maggakis-Kelemen, “Circular dichroism spectra of human hemoglobin reveal a reversible structural transition at body temperature.,” Eur. Biophys. J. EBJ, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 490–496, 2004.


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