Pakistan has had an extremely shaky political history over the past 7 decades. It has gone through 4 Coups. Tariq Ali a prominent British journalist calls it a “constant struggle between military dictators and corrupt elected democracies.” This environment has allowed them unprecedented autonomy to grow in to an organization that has its own agenda. The fact that there is no legal framework to regulate it has bolstered their freedom to operate as an independent organization from the government of Pakistan. In fact they have remained the only constant organization in this ever changing political environment that was involved in orchestrating a lot of these regime changes, thereby maintaining its control over the region. Since many a time its policies do not align with those of elected officials in the government it may be considered an organized crime syndicate in the stricter sens...
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Michael Rubin, “The Afghan Aftermath in the Middle East,” Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs (March-May 2002), available at
ABC Exclusive: Pakistani Bomb Scientist Breaks Silence - http://www.abcnews.go.com/Blotter/story?id=4964884&page=1
Yunas Samad, “In and Out of Power but Not Down and Out: Mohajir Identity Politics,” in Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation? ed. Christophe Jaffrelot (New Delhi: Manohar, 2002), 71.
Noah Feldman, After Jihad: American and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003), 127.
Mariam Abou Zahab and Olivier Roy, Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 54–55.
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