When different experts where asked to describe what intelligence is, they could not find one common definition but agreed that it includes the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to the environment (Comer et al., 2013). They further stated that it includes the ability to solve problems, think logically, reason well and show intelligent behavior by good articulation (Flangan, Harrison, 2005).
Scientists argue for fixed intelligence as well as for environmental determination in the debate which is the biggest influence on intelligence. Darwin’s theory of the survival of the fittest supports the assumption that intelligence is passed on genetically (Hunt, 1961). Because only the most intelligent individuals survive, only they can reproduce. Moreover, studies with different family members show a high correlation in the IQ-test results, whereas there are almost no similarities in tests taken by non-related persons (Kamin, 1974). Identical twins, having almost identical genes, have a correlation of 90 per cent whereas non-twin siblings and parents ...
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...d Wechsler became one of the most influential ones in the late 20th century (Comer et al., 2013). Even though little of his work was original he improved and combined already existing tests, thus developing the Wechsler-Bellevue scale in 1939. This test is still the most common used today because of its compatibility for adult subjects and the wider range of tested areas (Comer et al., 2013).
Intelligence is a complex, multi layered phenomenon. Many different attempts have been made to break down and define what intelligence is and where it originates from but there is still no universal definition. Psychologists have developed different theories in order to be able to test intelligence accordingly. To conclude, depending on the developers aims, intelligence test may concentrate on children’s skill to success in school or a broader knowledge and abilities of adults.
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