The Extracellular concentration of potassium (K) is between 3.5-5.0 mmol/l. 98% of the total potassium in the body is in the Intracellular fluid (approx 3700mmol for a 70kg man) while only 2% is in ECF (approx 65mmol). The typical daily intake of potassium is 50-150mmol which exceeds total amount of potassium in extracellular compartment.
The distribution of potassium between Intracellular and Extracellular compartment is determined by the balance between inward and outward movement of potassium. Uptake of potassium into the cell is dependent of Na+,k+-ATPase, where as efflux from cell is passive.
As earlier stated potassium intake in meal in a day is more than the total potassium content of the ECF compartment, the amount of K+ in a single meal could cause lethal hyperkalemia.
Two mechanism are used to keep K+ within normal range in the body
Kidney response is the most effective regulator of K+, but the mechanism is very slow. In the interim cellular buffering acts to keep the K+ level within range. As ECF K+ rises, its uptake into the cell increases and when ECF K+ falls it shift out of the cell. it uses passive for outward movement and active for inward movement. The Na+,k+-ATPase which actively transport k+ into cell is stimulated by an elevation in k+ and inhibited by a decrease in ECF k+ concentration.
Other factors that can affect k+ shift in and out of the cell are
• ACIDEMIA: increase H+ concentration in acidosis increases potassium concentration in the extracellular fluid. This occurs as a result of exchange of extracellular hydrogen ion for intracellular potassium.
• INSULIN: Insulin promote uptake of potassium by skeletal muscle and liver cells. i...
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...piration, and it helps to exhale CO2 and raise the PH back to normal.
EFFECT OF INCREASE IN RESPIRATION RATE
Regardless of the cause of decrease arterial PH, respiratory system attempt to compensate and raise the PH by eliminating CO2 from the body thus respiration rate and depth is increased to get rid of CO2 and bring the PH back to normal.
Elane N. Marieb, & Katja N. (2014). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th Edition) Pearson Education Inc.
Leonard, R. & Johnson(2003) Essential medical physiology (3rd edition) USA: Elsevier academic Press .
Rodney, A., Rhoades, George, A.,& Tanner(2003) Medical Physiology (2nd Edition) London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Valene, C., & Tina, S., Essential of Anatomy & Physiology (5th Edition) Philadelphia: F. A. Davis company
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