Abdel-Rahman et al. (1995) evaluated the toxicological effects of five different insecticides (Propoxur, Fenitrothion, D-Phenothrin, Malathion and Permethrin) separately and in combination with two surfactants (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) on Culex pipiens larvae. The results indicated that, the efficiency of the tested chemical insecticides on the bases of their LC50 values could be arranged in descending order as follows: Propoxur > Fenitrothion > D-Phenothrin > Malathion > Permethrin. The used insecticides appeared have high toxicity values against the two tested strains (Abbassia strain and Kashish strain) of Culex pipiens larvae indicating no evidence of development of resistance. Moreover, the addition of three concentrations of the surfactants Tween-20 or Triton X-100 as synergists increase the toxicity of the tested insecticides. The co-toxicity coefficient was concentration dependent.
Bakr (1995) indicated that, the use of two of the common surfactants (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) with IGR's, Bay Sir 8514, Altosid and RO-08-9801 increased the biological activity of IGR's against susceptible and resistant strains of C. pipiens larvae. The use of the surfactants Triton X-100 and Tween-20 as synergistic agent to IGR's improved the insecticidal efficiency and lowered the LC50 values. The results point ou...
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...the treated An. multicolor and Cx. pipiens larvae sank to the bottom and aggregated before death, while at the lower concentrations the larvae swam to the surface singly. They also reported that C. procera caused some morphological abnormalities of larvae, pupae and adults of Cx. pipiens and An. multicolor.
Ansari, et al. (2000) indicated that adults emerged following treatment by sublethal dose (2 ml/m2) of Dalbergia sissoo essential oil (extracted from wood scrapings) did not lay eggs (Ae. aegypti), or laid unhatched eggs (An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus).
El-Kassas (2001) concluded that the inhibition of certain proteins in Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens mosquito larvae treated with 6 plant extracts may reflect the role of their larvicidal action. The author stated that the protein inhibition could be correlated to the mode of action of the tested agents.
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