Formal learning is a recognized process of study reworded with certificate or a form of special recognition by specific institution. Formal learning is based in the classroom, usually the institution sponsors this type of learning and it has structured forms.
Informal learning includes incidental learning, different locations than classroom such as work place institution, and not highly structured. The learners control their own study progress and they deicide how much they want to learn. Informal learning is usually intentional such as self-directed learning, networking, coaching, and mentoring. Informal learning can happen incidentally and unconscious.
The following authors (Marsick and Watkins 1990 pg. 25) and (Garrick 1998 pg. 26) had been compared informal learning to the concept of “en passant”.
Informal learning compared to formal learning and conformal by ( Reischmann 1986 pg. 26), social modeling by Bandura in 1986, experimental learning by Boud, Cohen, Walker in 1993, self directed by Candy 1991.
The others authors compared incidental learning to:
- action learning as a variant of experiential learning,
- action science
- reflection in action
- critical reflection and trans-formative learning
- tacit knowing
- situated cognition
- communities of practice
Incidentals and informal learning is practiced in many cultures in different context, for example in the private and public sectors, hospitals, health cares, colleges and universities, schools, professional associations, museums, religious organizations, families, and communities.
Learning from the study
According to study conducted by Colbert and Diesel teachers learn informally through reflecti...
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...velopment. The employers learn how they can access a new knowledge, examine multiple ways to learn, and more effectively plan their future learning. Adult educator may help the employers to identify condition how to learn more effectively. For example the recipient of welfare are leashing to get a jog and keep the job for the extended time period.
According to conduced studies there are different levels of learning happen in various groups such as:
Individual learners - who learned by acquire knowledge and skills.
At the Team level - people learns by mutual construction of new knowledge including capacity for concerted, collaborative, action.
Organizational level - the policies, procedure, work process, information system, organizational mental models, and knowledge of the product and service influence learning
Marsick and Watkins 1990 pg. 25
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