Influence of a Micro RNA on Complex-Forming Proteins Essay

Influence of a Micro RNA on Complex-Forming Proteins Essay

Length: 1518 words (4.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Effect of miRNA on complex-forming proteins
We studied the global correlation between protein complex association number and the number of miRNA target-site types at the 3′ UTRs of the gene encoding the protein. Interestingly, we have noticed a significant negative correlation between them (ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex association number = -0.102, P = 2.0×10-2, N = 513 [TargetScan]; ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex number = -0.191, P = 3.8×10-2, N = 118 [miRWalk]) (Supplementary Fig. 1A) which suggests that the proteins with low complex association number could be more targeted by miRNA compared to the proteins with high complex association number. Although the reported effect of miRNA on protein complex is significant, but of a very small magnitude which implies that protein complex association number is not tightly regulated by miRNA target. It was evident that highly sensitive nature of multi-protein complex towards their expression variation [19] may restrain the protein complex to be regulated by miRNA. Likewise, proteins that are shared across different complexes require a highly orchestrate expression pattern, frequent targeting by miRNA may perturb their expression coordination which also can damage their functional activity. Thus proteins, present in a large number of protein complexes turn down the robust regulation of miRNA.

Previous findings that proteins attached with multiple protein complexes tend to evolve slowly than those with fewer or no complex assembly [20]. In our study, negative correlation between protein complex association number and miRNA regulation thus need clarification because genes with a higher level of miRNA regulation were reported to evolve more slowly [21]. To unravel t...

... middle of paper ...

...ution of gene families in yeast. Nature 424, 194-197.
[26] Jansen, R., Greenbaum, D. and Gerstein, M. (2002). Relating whole-genome expression data with protein-protein interactions. Genome Res 12, 37-46.
[27] Mok, Y., Park, S. and Choi, S. (2012). Comparative analysis of the structural and expressional parameters of microRNA target genes. Gene 497, 103-109. [28] Chen, S., Chuang, T. and Li, W. (2011). The Relationships Among MicroRNA Regulation, Intrinsically Disordered Regions, and Other Indicators of Protein Evolutionary Rate. Mol Biol Evol 28: 2513-2520.
[29] Makova, K.D. and Li, W.H. (2003). Divergence in the spatial pattern of gene expression between human duplicate genes. Genome Res 13, 1638-45.
[30] Gu, Z., Steinmetz, L., Gu, X., Scharfe, C., Davis, R. and Li, W. (2003). Role of duplicate genes in genetic robustness against null mutations. Nature 421, 63-66.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Micro RNA and Cardiovascular Analysis Essay

- Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide and is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The pathological process of the heart is related to altered expression of genes that are important for cardiac function. Thus, micro RNAs have become known as key regulators of gene expression and the recent studies have suggested the potential importance of micro RNAs; as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for many big diseases including cardiac diseases....   [tags: cardiovascular, micro rna, cardiac muscle]

Powerful Essays
1023 words (2.9 pages)

Micro Ribonucleic Acid Analysis Essay

- Studies are being carried out using animal models such as mice and zebra fish to understand the importance of micro RNA in vascular development. Knockdown of micro RNA 126 in zebra fish resulted in loss of vascular integrity and haemorrhage during embryonic development (65). Overexpression of micro RNA 92a (66) induced severe defects in inter segmental vessel formation in zebra fish. An independent study reported that deletion of micro RNA 126 resulted in 50 percent of mice being killed. Micro RNA 23, 24, 27 are highly present in endothelial cells and vascularized tissues....   [tags: micro rna, vascular development]

Powerful Essays
647 words (1.8 pages)

The Chemistry And Function Of Protein And Rna Essay

- According to the Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from Mount Olympus and created mankind from clay while Athena breathed life into clay figures. Not only the Greek mothology but also some other religions also carry “creation of human from clay” story, which was believed how life was created. Today, scientist know that the difference between then non-living objects and living objects is not a result of magic power. Life is made possible by the interaction of organic molecules, which consist of four major classes such as carbonhyrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids....   [tags: RNA, DNA, Protein, Ribosome]

Powerful Essays
710 words (2 pages)

Dna, Rna, And Rna Essay

- In the article The Information in DNA Is Decoded by Transcript the reader is given a lesson on how the DNA, also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, process of replication works. A somewhat step by step of how DNA is decoded then transcribed in cells to help create proteins. To begin DNA is described as a molecule that stores in information that cells use to maintain their life. The information, also known as genes, are duplicated so that cells can use the information provided to create protein, as mentioned before....   [tags: DNA, RNA, Gene, Protein]

Powerful Essays
710 words (2 pages)

Essay on What Are Micro RNA

- What are micro RNAs. Micro RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in regulating the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). Over 1000 miRNAs have been identified which control approximately 60% of the protein coding genes1. The miRNAs are on average 23 nucleotides long, with nucleotides 2-7 acting as the seed region. The seed region is needed for specific mRNA interactions and mutations occur in this region it can disrupt the miRNA, mRNA Watson-Crick base pairing2. mRNA is stabilized in the cytoplasm by adding a 5’ cap and a 3’ poly adenine tail, which prevents degradation by ribonucleases....   [tags: biology, disease, genes]

Powerful Essays
1029 words (2.9 pages)

Transcription Of Rna And Rna Essay

- Transcription is a process in which RNA is synthesised from a DNA template. Transcription occurs inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and is catalysed by the enzyme RNA polymerase. The enzyme catalyses the initiation and elongation of RNA chains and requires a DNA template, all four ribonucleoside triphosphates (ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP) and a divalent metal ion such as Mg2+ or Mn2+ (Burrell, H, 2014). Transcription is split into three stages; initiation, elongation and termination. During initiation of transcription RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and just 17 base pairs of DNA are unwound at any given time....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, Protein, Gene]

Powerful Essays
1022 words (2.9 pages)

Considering The Properties Of Dna And Rna Essay

- Considering the properties of DNA and RNA, discuss the reasons why life is thought to have originated from an RNA world and not a DNA world There is great debate as to the origin of modern day life, and its replicative and catalytic mechanisms. One of the main questions debated by scientists concerning the origin of life is whether life was first based on proteins or nucleic acids. As polynucleotides are able to form copies of their own sequences and polypeptides are not, many people believe nucleic acids are far more likely to have existed first....   [tags: RNA, DNA, Ribozyme, RNA world hypothesis]

Powerful Essays
1948 words (5.6 pages)

The Molecular Structure Of A Protein And Ribonucleic Acid ( Rna ) Essay

- Genetic information is encoded in the molecular structure of nucleic acids in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Most organisms carry their genetic information in DNA, with the exception of some viruses, which use RNA. Within the cell, genetic information is transported within the chromosomes, which are comprised of DNA and associated proteins. Human cells possess 46 chromosomes, each of which carries a large number of genes. Through meiosis, pairing and separation of replicated chromosomes occurs during the division of sex cells to form gametes....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, RNA]

Powerful Essays
1393 words (4 pages)

Rna Based Approaches For Hiv Rna And Rna Molecules With Catalytic Activity

- 1.4.2 RNA-based approaches Ribozymes Ribozymes are RNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be engineered to cleave HIV RNA molecules at specific sites.231 Ribozymes targeting the U5 region, pol ORF, tat ORF or a site in the overlapping tat/rev ORF were tested in phase I clinical trials, but no antiviral effects were observed following the transplantation of CD4+ T cell or HSPCs transduced with MLV vectors.232 A hammerhead ribozyme targeting a site in the overlapping vpr and tat ORFs of HIV RNA advanced to phase II trials.233,234 Autologous HSPCs were transduced with an MLV vector that expressed the ribozyme under control of the MLV LTR....   [tags: RNA, DNA, RNA interference, Gene]

Powerful Essays
846 words (2.4 pages)

RNA and Human Genome Essays

- About 98% of the human genome transcripted into RNA that does not code protein [1],which popularly called non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs). These transcripts fall into several classes based on their length, biogenesis, polarity (sense or antisense), and putative functions. A classification set it as long and small ncRNAs depending upon length of the transcript. Small ncRNAs include Piwi-interacting RNAs(piRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs(miRNAs), and some bacterial regulatory RNAs[2]. By contrast, the long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs) characterized a class of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides[3].A large number of ncRNAs like miRNAs and piRNAs has been well studied in human an...   [tags: RNA, non coding RNA]

Powerful Essays
941 words (2.7 pages)