Infertility Essay

Infertility Essay

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Infertility is a significant and common problem; approximately 9% of couples throughout the world are infertile with 56% of couples needing treatment (Boivin et al, 2007). Study by Mike Hull demonstrated that sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of male infertility (Hull, 1985). This observation has been confirmed by other studies with report that dysfunctional sperm may exist against entirely normal semen analysis and conversely normal sperm function with very poor samples (oligozoospermia) (3-4 in Cris paper). Without a clear understanding at cellular and molecular level of sperm dysfunction, the only effective treatment for these cases is assisted reproductive technology (ART). It is generally accepted that diagnostic and predictive value of conventional semen analysis is very poor in predicting sperm fertilising potential of infertile couples. As result of this, numerous studies on assessing the cells’ functional competence and diagnose sperm dysfunctions have been developed over the last few years in an attempt to assess the predictive value of these tests for the outcome of in-vitro fertilisation.

One of the most important parameters of sperm function is hyperactivation. For fertilisation to occur, spermatozoa must undergo capacitation either in vivo (in the female reproductive tract) or in vitro (in conditioned culture medium), which involves a sequence of membrane and metabolic changes, including transition of progressive motility to a highly irregular movement (hyperactivation). Hyperactivated motility is displayed by sperm swimming in the oviduct and has several physiological advantages, which could certainly help sperm to move effectively through different obstacles in the female reproductive tract e.g....


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...rtilisation rate was studied in prepared sperm samples that were surplus following treatment, to eliminate inter ejaculate-variation. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the incidence of Ca2+ store failure among sub fertile patients and its clinical significance in male infertility; (2) the relationship between % hyperactivation and intracellular Ca2+ level in response to Ca2+ -store mobilising agents; (3) if intracellular Ca2+ and HA are related to IVF success; (4) if hyperactivation in response to Ca2+ -store mobilising agents is biomarker to differentiate between men with normozoospermic samples and patients with severe male factor infertility; and (5) if impaired store mobilisation is stable problem in these patients or vary between ejaculates, this is achieved by recalling sub fertile patients with store malfunction to be examined further.






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