Infection By Human Papillomavirus ( Hpv ) Essay

Infection By Human Papillomavirus ( Hpv ) Essay

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For Protection of All Girls
Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States affecting 20 millions of Americans at age of 16 to 24 years old. Men and women get in contact with HPV when they engage in any kind of sexual relation such as vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse because HPV spreads through skin to skin contact. The HPV infection is asymptomatic, and without medical treatment, may result in cancer including vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. However, the most frequent is cervical cancer (Petrosky et al. 300). There are more than 100 known types of HPV and all of them can cause cervical cancer. In 2011, cellular samples of women with high-risk for cervical cancer were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and HPV was found in 90% of the samples (Markowitz et al. 5). In the United States, the prevalence of HPV among females at age of 14 to 59 years old was 42.5%, with the highest frequency, 53.8%, among 20-24 years old women. Thus, an important public health strategy is to vaccinate girls between 11 to 12 years old to prevent cervical cancer (Markowitz et al. 4). The vaccine is especially recommended for girls in this age group because probably they do not have any kind of sexual contact; consequently, these girls are not infected with one or more HPV types.
Currently, three vaccines are available for immunization: 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), 4-valent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), and 2-valent HPV vaccine (2vHPV). In some states, legislators proposed some measures as educational campaigns, public subsidies, and insurance requirements in view of increasing population knowledge about the virus and the vaccines. The most important of these measures seems to be m...

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...o not consider FDA approbation for the vaccines enough. They argue that more factors, for example side effects, should be better analyzed before compulsory vaccination and vaccine commercialization. Some common side effects like redness, pain, and swelling were experienced for some girls. Consequently, questions about the vaccine might cause adverse reactions too rare to be detected during premarket clinical trials started to be made (787). In a study realized by Dempsey et al., 42% of mothers cited safety concerns for declining vaccination of their daughter. Even among mothers who vaccinated their children, 21% of these mothers expressed concerns about security of the vaccines (qtd. in Small et al. 522). However, the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are supervising the adverse events of HPV vaccine through pre-clinical tests and systems of communication.

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