Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States affecting 20 millions of Americans at age of 16 to 24 years old. Men and women get in contact with HPV when they engage in any kind of sexual relation such as vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse because HPV spreads through skin to skin contact. The HPV infection is asymptomatic, and without medical treatment, may result in cancer including vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. However, the most frequent is cervical cancer (Petrosky et al. 300). There are more than 100 known types of HPV and all of them can cause cervical cancer. In 2011, cellular samples of women with high-risk for cervical cancer were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and HPV was found in 90% of the samples (Markowitz et al. 5). In the United States, the prevalence of HPV among females at age of 14 to 59 years old was 42.5%, with the highest frequency, 53.8%, among 20-24 years old women. Thus, an important public health strategy is to vaccinate girls between 11 to 12 years old to prevent cervical cancer (Markowitz et al. 4). The vaccine is especially recommended for girls in this age group because probably they do not have any kind of sexual contact; consequently, these girls are not infected with one or more HPV types.
Currently, three vaccines are available for immunization: 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), 4-valent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), and 2-valent HPV vaccine (2vHPV). In some states, legislators proposed some measures as educational campaigns, public subsidies, and insurance requirements in view of increasing population knowledge about the virus and the vaccines. The most important of these measures seems to be m...
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...o not consider FDA approbation for the vaccines enough. They argue that more factors, for example side effects, should be better analyzed before compulsory vaccination and vaccine commercialization. Some common side effects like redness, pain, and swelling were experienced for some girls. Consequently, questions about the vaccine might cause adverse reactions too rare to be detected during premarket clinical trials started to be made (787). In a study realized by Dempsey et al., 42% of mothers cited safety concerns for declining vaccination of their daughter. Even among mothers who vaccinated their children, 21% of these mothers expressed concerns about security of the vaccines (qtd. in Small et al. 522). However, the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are supervising the adverse events of HPV vaccine through pre-clinical tests and systems of communication.
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- The Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common Sexually Transmitted Infection, which affects nearly all women and men at some point in their life. Currently, 79 million Americans are infected with this virus, with 14 million, usually young adults, being infected every year. HPV consists of a group of about 100 viruses, some of which are harmless and do not need treatment. However, others can have malevolent effects on the body. For example, strains 6 and 11, which are some of the most common, cause low grade and benign cell anomalies, which can lead to warts.... [tags: HPV vaccine, Human papillomavirus]
1233 words (3.5 pages)
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an infection that is transferred during sexual intercourse. It is prevalent among sexually active individuals. In fact, according to centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) said, “HPV is the most common sexual transmitted infection that affects both men and women. It’s so common that most sexually active people will get some variety of it at some point, even if they have few sexual partners” (qtd. in Markowitz et al.). HPV can cause cancer or genital warts.... [tags: Human papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Anal cancer]
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- A human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted sexual behavior and a major cause of cervical cancer; about 70% of all cervical cancer occur HPVs 16 and 18 (Markowitz et al., 2013). An estimated prevalence of a HPV infection in the US was 39.9 million women and approximately 8.88million women among aged 15 to 24 years had HPV infections in 2008 (Satterwhite et al., 2013). A HPV Vaccine has been approved and has been recommended in females aged 9 to 26 years in the United States since 2006 (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).... [tags: HPV vaccine, Human papillomavirus]
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- Genitalia Human Papillomavirus (also known as HPV) is a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). Technically, it is not a sexually transmitted disease but it can lead to other HPV types. HPV is usually transmitted through oral, vaginal, or anal sexual activity. This virus is highly contagious and if it goes unnoticed, it can be transmitted to partners. One can be sexually abstinent, but the infection will remain in the body, and can easily be transmitted once the infected person has genital-to-genital contact with a partner.... [tags: sexually transmitted infection]
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