Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are cells that have the ability to grow indefinitely, maintain pluripotency and differentiate into all three germ layers. In 1981, two groups first derived them from the inner cell mass of mouse blastocyst and showed that ESCs arise from totipotent cells of the mammalian embryo, have normal karyotypes and are able to have unlimited and undifferentiated proliferation in vivo (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Martin 1981). A decade later, Thomson et al. derived the first human embryonic stem cell lines (hESC) from cultured human b...
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