The decision to grant independence to India was not the logical culmination of errors in policy, neither was it as a consequence of a mass revolution forcing the British out of India, but rather, the decision was undertaken voluntarily. Patrick French argues that: “The British left India because they lost control over crucial areas of the administration, and lacked the will and the financial or military ability to recover that control”.
Whilst the growth of Indian nationalism put considerable pressure on the Raj, historians offer many interpretations as to the fundamental cause of Independence. Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement and subsequent campaigns meant that nationalism began to appeal to the masses and helped establish a broad based movement for Independence. However, the British were always able to supress the nationalist movements, through reform or by using force, up to the Quit India movement of 1942. British involvement in the Great War and particularly the Second World War placed them in a weaker position economically, whilst the social and political expectations of the Indian people were changing, which strengthened nationalism and discontent.
There is a distinct difference between popular Indian nationalism, that is the nation believing in a state independent of Britain, and Indian nationalist movements, for example the Muslim League or the Hindu revivalist movement. These movements fought for independence but were far more religiously orientated and were fighting in their own interests. Although Indian nationalism initially found expression in the Mutiny of 1857, its deve...
... middle of paper ...
...ence in 1947.
BOSE, Sugata and JALAL Ayesha. Modern South Asia: history, culture, political economy. London, Routledge, 2011
BROWN, Judith M. Modern India: the Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1985
DALRYMPLE, William. The Last Mughal. London, Bloomsbury, 2006
FRENCH, Patrick. Liberty or Death. London, Penguin Books, 1997
JUDD, Denis. Empire: the British Imperial Experience, from 1765 to the Present. London, 1996
LEADBEATER, Tim. Britain and India 1845-1947. London, Hodder Education, 2008
REES, Rosemary. India 1900-47. Harlow, Heinemann, 2006
www.hisorylearningsite.co.uk: TRUEMAN, Chris & co. India 1900-1947
www.thenagain.info: KOELLER, David. India’s Independence from Britain 1947
www.open.ac.uk: Making Britain: 1947 quit India Movement
www.bbc.co.uk: KAUL, Chandrika. History: from empire to Independence
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The impact of world war one was very much a significant out turn to Indian nationalism to an undoubted extent. Nonetheless, there were many other factors that had led up to the rise in nationalism with the help of rising leaders such as Ghandi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Nationalism is a form of patriotism based upon the identification of individuals within a nation. This can likewise be said for the people of India as many people had an intense desire for independence from the British rule. They had come to realise that the ways the British had been treating people were cruel and monstrous.... [tags: Indian independence movement]
729 words (2.1 pages)
- World War I was making the British busy. Many people question why Gandhi did not break apart from the British while they were vulnerable, but the answer is simple. Gandhi vowed to not take advantage of his opponents troubles. Instead of fighting the British, Gandhi influenced people. He used satyagraha to change inequities between Indians. For example, Gandhi persuaded landlords to stop forcing their tenant farmers to pay increased rent and mill owners to peacefully settle a strike. Gandhi's goal was not to make everybody do exactly as he does, but to understand why he does and learn the ideals.... [tags: British Empire rule, Salt March]
1746 words (5 pages)
- Introduction to Indian English Literature: English, the language of international status, is especially remarkable for its flexible and variable character. It is not tied down to typical English conventions and social, cultural and literary background in various countries when it is read and spoken. It, on the other hand, has come under the dominant influence of the cultural and social background of the countries concerned. The geographical, climatic, social and cultural conditions prevalent in a country have determined the character of written and spoken English.... [tags: Indian English Literature]
3409 words (9.7 pages)
- Ruthann Niewoehner 11.16.14 Professor Goldman Nationalism on the International Stage “The Cold War” is a broad term for the international order between 1945 and 1989. From proxy wars to space programs, and propaganda to independence movements, nationalism is the common denominator that truly catalyzed the major confrontations of the time period. Nationalism is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as, “(1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity, and (2) the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self-determination”.... [tags: Cold War, Communism, Vietnam War, World War II]
1710 words (4.9 pages)
- ... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=blOSL2WRwk4 Nationalism & the Imagination was a talk written by Gayatri Spivak. She presented this talk to the teacher’s of humanities at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Bulgaria. Spivak was born in Kolkata, India 1942 and five years before independence from the British. She is a postcolonial theorist, feminist, philosopher and University Professor at Columbia University in New York. She is best known for the essay Can the Subaltern Speak. considered a founding text of postcolonialism and for the English translation of the book Of Grammatology by Jacques Derrida.... [tags: indian sovereignty, marginalized women]
546 words (1.6 pages)
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar located in Gujarat and was assassinated on January 30, 1948. Mahatma Gandhi was the superior leader and revolutionist of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. He led Republic of India to autonomy and galvanized movements for civil rights and independence across the globe. Just like other revolutionist in history, Gandhi took his time to evolve and advanced his techniques to confirm that his actions created an effect. His acceptance in several religions was very much admirable.... [tags: gandhi, indian nationalist, civil disobedience]
1022 words (2.9 pages)
- The circumstances created for the native population of India by the British government led to the independence movement which would arduously bring the nation independence from India in June of 1947 and employ democratic constitution in 1950, effectively resolving the tribulations created by the British government and their exploitation of India. However, this process was not immediate it involved decades of work organizations and movements and individuals such as All-India Congress Committee, the Quit India Movement, and Mohandas Gandhi, all which fought to remedy the British Indian situation and take back political and economic control of India, though via various levels of passive and vio... [tags: Indian independence movement, India]
1294 words (3.7 pages)
- Indian Nationalism Factors Promoting Nationalism Racial arrogance - on the part of the British created resentment by Indians. They were treated as second-class citizens and were given only the poorest jobs. British in positions of power, such as General Mayo (Viceroy of India) openly made statements of racial superiority. Educated Indian professionals - felt they were denied equal opportunities within the "machinery" of British rule (such as the Indian Civil Service). They founded a nationalist movement that initially sought equal status for Indians and eventually sought full Indian independence.... [tags: Asian Asian History]
341 words (1 pages)
- Introduction Nationalism can be defined as sprit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation, also someone that devote and loyalty to own country.Nationalism is a form of love toward your country, this form of love has been trained since young the honour being one of your country, willing to do anything include risking your own life to protect the it and people of the country from any harm as an act of loyalty to the country, for example, the heroes that risk their lives to save this country.... [tags: National Aspirations, Malaysia, Culture, Country]
1276 words (3.6 pages)
- Nationalism One person or a group of people can take on a major role of the unification process that brings upon nationalism for their country. To get a better understanding of what nationalism is, one must learn the meaning of "nationalism." Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of a particular nation. Nationalism is a striving force that can help a country thrive. There are also different ways that a country can achieve nationalism. Two different people/organizations with two different tactics were able to achieve a feel of nationalism among their country.... [tags: European Europe History]
703 words (2 pages)