In the 1970s, scientists were creating what would become the Internet. They decided that every single thing on the Internet would have an address to facilitate packet routing. They called the address system IPv4 and set up the binary to allow for a seemingly impossible large 4 billion address space. IPv4 consists of 4 blocks of eight bits, or 32-bits.
Figure 1.1: IPv4 Address
However, while the genius minds behind the Internet thought 4 billion addresses was enough, they did not anticipate a world with 3 billion internet users each with laptops, mobile phones, tablets, cameras, fridges, smart light-bulbs and new smart TV’s. Most 21st century devices require connections to the Internet directly contributing to the shortage of IPv4 addresses. It is estimated that by 2020 there will be more than 50 billion devices online (more than 10x IPv4 addresses).
Due to the inadequacies of IPv4, a new protocol named IPv6 was published in 1999. IPv6 is capable of providing 3.4 x 1038 unique IP addresses or 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses. To put it into perspective, that is an entire IPv4 network (4.3 billion addresses) for every star in the universe. It is almost impossible to reach such a number and so to ensure that another transition is not required in the future. The sheer amount of IPv6 addresses provides confidence to the fact that the Internet can continue to progress without the worry of IP address exhaustion.
Figure 1.2: IPv6 and IPv4 structure
In 2011, ICANN (The International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) held a news conference in Miami, Florida where they announced IPv6 as the new world standard for computer communications. The CEO of ICANN, Rober...
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... and comes with Internet usage to allow the user to surf the Internet or use video conferencing tools while cooking or entertaining guests.The touch screen display increases the functionality of a basic backsplash and allows the user to engage in video conferencing or surveillance while cooking, otherwise impossible due to the limitations of IPv4.
It is evident that an increasing number of our devices are becoming heavily reliant on the ability to connect with the Internet. Therefore, it is critical for the world to continue adopting IPv6 to ensure that the Internet continues to operate as it is meant to and without any errors. The Internet has changed the way humans live and are going to live their lives. IPv6 solves the unforeseeable problems with IPv4 exhaustion and will propel the technological age forward with its improved functionality, and smooth connectivity.
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