UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA
The importance of literacy helps students improve reading, learn to spell, write, and understand comprehensions skills and strategies. The National Reading Panel (2000) came up with an effective reading program to develop with reading and writing. There are five essential reading components to literacy. Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension are essential reading components. Teachers teach five essential components effectively through small group intervention, explicit instruction, orally reading practices, and activities. Phonemic Awareness is made up of many areas such as phonemes, graphemes, and phonics (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2008, pp. 2-5).
Phonemic awareness helps a struggling reader learn the meaning of words, understand sounds and letters. Phonemic awareness has a relationship between phoneme, grapheme, and phonics. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear syllables, letter sounds, segment, and blend, identify, and manipulate spoken words (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2008, pp. 5-7). Phonemic awareness is effective when explicit instruction is based on the student literacy level through Dibels, assessments, and anecdotal and running records. Teachers meet with the struggling reader at least three times a week to see improving reading progress. Phonemic manipulations teach sounds with the letters and identify phonemes. Students can break words into individual syllables by segmenting. Blending combines syllables, onsets, and phones to find the relationship of the word spoken. Picture cards are an effective activity to improve reading, writing, and spelling by segmenting each sound of...
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...acy focuses on the building blocks of vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, phonics, and phonemic awareness. Cooperative learning helps students become a better reader. In this research, there are many various ways to get a struggling reader to be fluent. The phonics and vocabulary practices give students many opportunities to get familiar with word parts, letter sounds, and repetition reading passages to form meaning of vocabulary words. Literacy is a major impact on students fostering reading and communicating with others in day-to-day life.
Armbruster, B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2008). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read (pp.12-34). (3rd ed.). Jessup, MD: NIFL
DeVries, B. A. (2011). Literacy: Assessment & intervention for classroom teachers. (3rd ed.). Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway.
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