Traditional grammar focuses on morphemes, words, phrases, clauses and sentences but leaves out phonemes, paragraphs and whole texts. Advanced grammar includes the latter and allows one to develop a better understanding of grammar because of those three additional items. To better understand grammar, a working knowledge of this vocabulary is necessary (Longacre).
A phoneme is the smallest unit of speech distinguishing one word from another. Phonemes find their root in spoken language represented by special symbols such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Each symbol represents a specific sound that is common in all languages. Morphemes are the smallest grammatical unit of speech; it may be words like “cat” or “an” or an element of a word like re and ed as in appeared. Words are sounds or combinations of sounds that has a meaning and is spoken and written. A phrase is a group of two or more words that express a single idea, but do not usually form a complete sentence. A clause is a part of a sentence that has its own subject and verb. Sentences are a group of words that express a statement, question, command or wish. A paragraph is a subdivision of a written composition that consists of one or more sentences, deals with one subject, begins on a new line, and that is made up of one or more sentences. Lastly, Whole texts are a literary medium used by authors to share an account ...
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The International Phonetic Association. N.p, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
Vincenzo, Cioffari. “Grammar - Beware.” The Modern Language Journal 42.6 (1958): 284-287. JSTOR. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.
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