The word Renaissance it’s used to indicate the cultural renewal’s stage, inspired by the ancient, which has its origins around the second decade of 16th century in Florence and three Florentines are the initiator and leading exponents: Brunelleschi regarding architecture, Donatello and Masaccio for sculpture and painting.
This cultural awakening has been prepared since the previous century by the literary and philosophical humanism conquests and by a recent interest in the culture of classical antiquity ( Argan,2008 ).
The transition from the Gothic to Renaissance should be contextualize as a part of a cultural transformation, much broader artistic needs. It coincided with the end of the Middle Ages which contemplated religious transcendence the only sources of knowledge of artistic inspiration.
The Neoplatonic doctrines induced “the ideal that embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance Humanism, which considered man the centre of universe, limitless in his capacities for development” ( http://www.britannica.com/topic/Renaissance-man ) and the concept of art as imitation of nature (Argan,2008).
Among the political and cultural factors that influenced this new address of the arts there were undoubtedly the affirmation of the lords and the development of humanism, with the resulting taste antiquarian and philological, which in architecture results in the study of the beautiful forms of the old buildings.
Although the movement is temporarily well defined, it possible to identify different stylistic moments which are identified as the critical "first Renaissance", belonging to the 15th century, the Renaissance and classical Mannerisms, both during 1500s. If the early Renaissance marks a break with the Gothic art, the la...
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...le: that of Pienza and the Campidoglio in Rome, the latter designed by Michelangelo.
Another consequence of these urban studies, occurred in the construction of the walls of the city. From the sixteenth century, the introduction, the art of war, gunpowder and cannons and mortars, demanded that the cities were defended by fortifications stronger. (Murray)
In the first decades of the 15th century Florence through an exciting time of prosperity, after the dark years followed by the plague of 1348, marked by economic and social problems. In this atmosphere of exaltation of civic virtue and the recovery of ancient roots of the city, he sees the light in the early years of the 400 -by Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio-phenomenon radically new renaissance. Renaissance is the rise of a new mentality, new ways of thinking about the man and the world ( Argan 2008).
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