Sir Halford John Mackinder in his famous –Heartland theory changed the concept of world geopolitics by saying- “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland, Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island
Who rules the World-Island commands the world.”
Afghanistan geographically lies in the periphery of Central Asia, yet this does not reduce its geostrategic importance in the geopolitical phenomena of this region. Not only geographical contiguity, common racial, ethnic, cultural and religious threads of connection make Afghanistan interlinked with Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and other countries of Central Asia. Huge cross-border migration, intruding cross-border conflicts culminating from ethnic, national and terrorist issues and involvement of superpowers in Afghanistan has always put Central Asian countries in a situation where they cannot ignore Afghanistan and cannot think to realize their dreams of regional stability and peace without collaborating with Kabul. Similarly, for other countries, including Pakistan, India, and neighboring regional powers, Afghanistan has remained as cause of disagreement. The Great Game of superpowers in Asia that had dynamics much larger than its regional platform was played on the grounds of Afghanistan. Therefore, to study Central Asian geopolitics, Afghanistan needs to be explored in every historical and geopolitical aspect. The avenue for interaction between different factors will have new dimensions once US and NATO forces are withdrawn from Afghanistan. Central Asian countries Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have common borders with Afghanistan of around 2,000 kilometers. Topography on these frontiers –for Turkmenistan and Uzbeki...
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UNICEF. “Land-mines: A deadly inheritance”. Retrieved 10 Feb. 2012 from http://www.unicef.org/graca/mines.htm
"Afghanistan” Berkley Center for Religion. Peace. and World Affairs. Retrieved 10 December 2012. from http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/countries/afghanistan
Olson. Parmy (2010). "The World's Most Dangerous Countries". Forbes Retrieved 10 Feb 2012. from http://www.forbes.com/2010/01/14/most-dangerous-countries-lifestyle-travel-haiti-afghanistan-iraq.html
Dupree, L, Nancy Hatch Dupree & others. "Last Afghan empire". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 20 Feb 2012. From http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7798/Afghanistan/21386/The-first-Muslim-dynasties.
Elphinstone, M.(1815). "Account of the Kingdom of Cabul and its Dependencies in Persia and India". London: Longman. Hurst. Rees. Orme & Brown.
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