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Autism spectrum disorders are a common neural developmental brain condition (Cheng et al., 2010). It does not have unifying neurobiological or pathological etiology (Geschwind& Levitt, 2007) .It characterized by impaired social interaction and communication skills and restricted repetitive behavior (Johnson & Myers, 2007). Medical condition such as mental retardation, chromosomal anomalies and seizures are often appear with autism (Casanova, 2007). During first 3 years of childhood, these major symptoms are revealed (Casanova, 2007). Autism is one of three recognized condition and the other two know as Asperger’s syndrome (Levy, Mandell, & Schultz, 2009). There are also secondary symptoms that may not be shown in individual with autism disorder such as lower IQ performance and sensory sensitivity (Alexander et al., 2006). It occurs due to altered recognition and connection of brain nerve cell and their synapses (Levy et al., 2009). Other factor contribute to the occurrence of autism are genetics or environmental factors or both (Rodier, 2004). In 1960s, it was estimated to occur in five in every 10,000 child worldwide but this number is increased recently to be 72 in every 10,000 child since the 1990s due to the change in diagnostic practice and media attention (Newschaffer et al, 2007). The reason of increasing this disorder in recent year is still unknown (Comi, Zimmerman, Frye, Law, & Peeden, 1999). This essay will discuss the causes of Autism spectrum disorders, brain structure changes that involved in this condition and thus the major and secondary symptoms occurrence in relating to these structure impaired development in the brain.
Autism appears between embryo development and the first 3 years of child development and c...

... middle of paper ...

... Schendel, D., & Windham, G. C. (2007).The Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 28, 21.1–21.

Geschwind D. H., & Levitt, P. (2007), Autism spectrum disorders: developmental disconnection syndromes. Neurobiology 17,103–11.

Johnson, C. P., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. PEDIATRICS, 120, 1183-1215.

Levy, S. E., Mandell, D. S., & Schultz, R. T. (2009). Autism. The Lancet, 374(9701), 1627 – 1638.

Lam, K. S. L., & Aman, M. G. (2007). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer, 37, 855–866.

Rodier, P. M. (2000). The Early Origins of Autism. Scientific American, 56-63.

Rodier, P. M. (2004). Environmental Causes of Central Nervous System Maldevelopment. PEDIATRICS, 113, 1076-1083.

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