In this article, Druckman, J.N. (2003) evaluated the impact that television images have over spectators when evaluating each debater. By comparing the results of an audio (radio), and audio-visual (television) presentation of the same debate we are able to understand the real effects that television has on voters’ decision. The first Kennedy vs. Nixon debate is the perfect example to assess this problem. This debate is one of the best known in history not only because it was the first televised debate, but because of the controversy that created on society. While people who heard the debate on radio assured Nixon victory; people who watched it on television conclude that Kennedy had won. Also, presidents from Television networks said that Kennedy looked bronzed and presentable, whereas Nixon looked dead and sweaty.
Therefore, Druckman J.N. (2003) conducted an experiment with the help of 171 students attending Minnesota University. Recruiting students without knowledge of this debate, Druckman J.N. (2003), randomly divided them either to hear an audio of the debate, or watch the television emission. The post-questionnaire reveal that viewers based on leadership, issue agreement, and character (integrity) proclaimed Kennedy winner, in the other hand listener based only on leadership and issue agreement gave the victory to Nixon. As Druckmen J.N. (2003) predicted, television images make viewers take in consideration the integrity of debaters to make their decision or evaluate the contenders. This experiment shows how televised debates have a great effect on people and its truth because a great percentage of people might base their decision only taking in consideration how the candidate look instead of leadership effectiv...
... middle of paper ...
Fridkin, K. L., Kenney, P. J., Gershon, S., Shafer, K., & Woodall, G. (2007). Capturing the Power of a Campaign Event: The 2004 Presidential Debate in Tempe. Journal Of Politics, 69(3), 770-785. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00574.x
Función discursiva en los debates televisados. Un estudio transcultural de los debates políticos en México, España y Estados Unidos. (Spanish). (2010). Palabra Clave, 13(2), 251-270.
Jaeho, C. (2009). DISENTANGLING MEDIA EFFECTS FROM DEBATE EFFECTS: THE PRESENTATION MODE OF TELEVISED DEBATES AND VIEWER DECISION MAKING. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(2), 383-400.
Seiter, J. S., Weger, H., Jensen, A., & Kinzer, H. J. (2010). The Role of Background Behavior in Televised Debates: Does Displaying Nonverbal Agreement and/or Disagreement Benefit Either Debater?. Journal Of Social Psychology, 150(3), 278-300.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- In the 1950's, television, having been introduced to political coverage as a new medium, surpassed the dominance of newspaper and radio media as the primary public source of information regarding politics by 1962. Political processes and events of various measures were all soon televised in recognition of overwhelmingly positive public feedback. By the 1970's, live coverage of major political events were as common as seeing grass on the ground. Through the impact of television, political campaigns and elections have never been the same as they were before 1952– the presidential race between Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson.... [tags: essays research papers]
1491 words (4.3 pages)
- Is news reported differently on different platforms. How will future technological developments affect newsgathering and distribution. Introduction The impact of the internet on journalism is one area that continues to attract the attention of media scholars. The technology has brought forth a set of opportunities and challenges for conventional media (Garrison, 1996). The last ten years have seen a lot of inventions which have greatly altered the way people access and consume news. Audiences have also “developed more sophisticated and speciﬁc demands and tastes for news delivery, thanks in part to the explosion of social media and mobile technology.” (Kolodzy 2013) Consequently, today’s a... [tags: twitter, facebook, blogs, drama]
1416 words (4 pages)
- A codependent relationship works best when both sides work together to be successful. From 1915 to 2000 sport broadcasting crushed television ratings. Four hundred million viewers joined around their television sets to see the latest news every evening. Spectators began watching their televisions for hours longer than prior ratings quoted. Increased profits came from several different departments, but what really brought in revenue were the advertisements. Advertisers gave players the opportunity for promotion contracts.... [tags: Broadcasting, Television, Television station]
1211 words (3.5 pages)
- ... It wasn 't until the mid 1950’s and 1960s, where then was a shift and the impact of television was recognized. The medium would now be used a major political tool to influence the nation. Television played important role in the political process, especially in shaping election campaigns. The first election that used television as a medium was the 1952 presidential race between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson (Baughman). Eisenhower 's use of short spot commercials helped enhance his image and presented him as a friendly and charming, which led to his eventual success in securing his spot as president.... [tags: Television, Reality television]
803 words (2.3 pages)
- ... It is said that the first image that was scanned and transmitted was a single line, and the second image that was scanned was that of a dollar sign because an investor had asked Farnsworth, “When are we going to see some dollars in this thing?” (Stephens, M, 1996). As if to answer this investor’s question, and according to Stephens (1996), the period 1948 through 1953 represents the beginning of the commercialization of American television, because it was during this time that two major networks, CBC and NBC invested significant sums of money into the production of a variety of television shows which found ready acceptance by an eager and growing audience, so that by this time the tele... [tags: Television, Reality television]
1120 words (3.2 pages)
- Parental Controls: The History and Impact of the Television V-Chip “Mom, why can’t I watch The Walking Dead. All of the other kids are watching it,” 12-year-old Nathan complained loudly. “It’s not appropriate for kids your age,” his mother Mariah replied calmly, grateful that she could block the show through her television’s parental controls. Obscenity on television has been publicly criticized since the 1950’s, and the debate continues today with the abundance of sex, violence, and coarse language on television.... [tags: Television, Television program, Television network]
1129 words (3.2 pages)
- The Negative Impact of Television on Education Television is a pervasive and complex part of children's lives, there are many factors that affect how much and what they view. In the essay 'Teaching as an Amusing Activity' (1987), Neil Postman argues television conditions us to tolerate visually entertaining material measured out in chunks at a time. He explains the ways in which the media is changing the way our children are learning. Neil Postman starts off by explaining how television is being used as an attractive and seductive medium to make children to like school with shows such as Sesame Street.... [tags: Teaching Education TV Impact essays Papers]
723 words (2.1 pages)
- Television's Impact on Society Although television is perceived as one of the greatest scientific inventions of the 20th century and is watched enormously by the American public, it is often criticized as the root of intellectual destruction for children. Television has been praised throughout history for its ability to transmit visual images with accompanying sound to entertain, educate, and to provide a sense of truth. Through the miracle of television the public has witnessed extraordinary historical events in an approach that no other form of communication has ever been able to duplicate. It has brought the man landing on the moon, the Kennedy assassination, and the Vi... [tags: Television Media TV Essays Papers ]
1812 words (5.2 pages)
- The Worldly Impact of Television The television had a very monumental role the world’s history. The television was first introduced in the early 1950’s. This new phenomenon of television took awhile for many people to catch on to, but once this device was received there was no looking back. The television set the stage for many things such as world news, local news, entertainment, and sports. The television allowed what used to be listeners to be able to view what was going on with their television set.... [tags: Television Media TV Essays]
823 words (2.4 pages)
- Television's Impact on Health In our society, television has become quite the vigorous activity. Sitting up is exhausting so most people lie down while watching television. If you were to eat at a fast food restaurant, and then head home for a bowl of ice cream for desert, oh, and then not to mention that bag of chips while you watch your favorite Reality TV series, you are asking for something that you are not going to be happy with. What is it that you are asking for. It is called obesity. I have found myself eating at McDonald’s on countless occasions.... [tags: Television Health Eating Essays]
664 words (1.9 pages)