Essay about Impact that Television Images have Over Spectators

Essay about Impact that Television Images have Over Spectators

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In this article, Druckman, J.N. (2003) evaluated the impact that television images have over spectators when evaluating each debater. By comparing the results of an audio (radio), and audio-visual (television) presentation of the same debate we are able to understand the real effects that television has on voters’ decision. The first Kennedy vs. Nixon debate is the perfect example to assess this problem. This debate is one of the best known in history not only because it was the first televised debate, but because of the controversy that created on society. While people who heard the debate on radio assured Nixon victory; people who watched it on television conclude that Kennedy had won. Also, presidents from Television networks said that Kennedy looked bronzed and presentable, whereas Nixon looked dead and sweaty.
Therefore, Druckman J.N. (2003) conducted an experiment with the help of 171 students attending Minnesota University. Recruiting students without knowledge of this debate, Druckman J.N. (2003), randomly divided them either to hear an audio of the debate, or watch the television emission. The post-questionnaire reveal that viewers based on leadership, issue agreement, and character (integrity) proclaimed Kennedy winner, in the other hand listener based only on leadership and issue agreement gave the victory to Nixon. As Druckmen J.N. (2003) predicted, television images make viewers take in consideration the integrity of debaters to make their decision or evaluate the contenders. This experiment shows how televised debates have a great effect on people and its truth because a great percentage of people might base their decision only taking in consideration how the candidate look instead of leadership effectiv...


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Fridkin, K. L., Kenney, P. J., Gershon, S., Shafer, K., & Woodall, G. (2007). Capturing the Power of a Campaign Event: The 2004 Presidential Debate in Tempe. Journal Of Politics, 69(3), 770-785. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00574.x
Función discursiva en los debates televisados. Un estudio transcultural de los debates políticos en México, España y Estados Unidos. (Spanish). (2010). Palabra Clave, 13(2), 251-270.
Jaeho, C. (2009). DISENTANGLING MEDIA EFFECTS FROM DEBATE EFFECTS: THE PRESENTATION MODE OF TELEVISED DEBATES AND VIEWER DECISION MAKING. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(2), 383-400.
Seiter, J. S., Weger, H., Jensen, A., & Kinzer, H. J. (2010). The Role of Background Behavior in Televised Debates: Does Displaying Nonverbal Agreement and/or Disagreement Benefit Either Debater?. Journal Of Social Psychology, 150(3), 278-300.

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