Organisational change has been defined as ‘the process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers’ (Moran and Brightman, 2001: 111). In order to survive in the era of rapid economic, companies will need to change. Instead of being simple and explicit, organisational change is complex, conceptual and continuous. As Pettigrew mentioned, “Empirically and theoretically, change and continuity need one another” (Pettigrew, 1987). Furthermore, based on Pettigrew’s research, change is best viewed as an emergent process (Pettigrew, 1985). There are many evidences throughout the years in which organizations implement changes as an ongoing process, rather than a one-time transformation.
In Pettigrew’s 1987 paper, he described change as a process of a triangular connections among content, context and process. Based on his definition, “thus broadly speaking, the ‘what’ of change is encapsulated under the label content, much of the ‘why’ of change is derived from an analysis of inner and outer context, and the ‘how’ of change can be understood from an analysis of process” (Pettigrew, 1987). Moreover, it is suggested that “organisational change is more an open-ended and continuous process than a set of pre-identified set of discrete and self-contained events” (Burnes, 2004). Consequently, in order for an organization to successfully implement changes, the process of such a plan has to be meticulous. Based on the triangular model, the three elements are well connected. First of all, the organization has to have a broad understanding of the content of the change. The context of change has to be thorough, and taking consideration of employees ...
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...s never been greater than in the current continuously evolving business environment” (Todnem, 2005). As the business environment continues to evolve, organizations will have to implement ongoing processes of change in order to be competitive. Thus, the processual view of change could benefit firms to perceive the change more distinctly. Van De Ven and Huber had stated that, “Process studies are fundamental to gaining an appreciation of dynamic organizational life, and to developing and testing theories of organizational adoption, change, innovation, and redesign” (Van De Ven and Huber, 1990). The reason behind the statement, ‘the change is best viewed as a process’ is that by identifying and studying the patterns in processes can significantly facilitate organizations to determine in “what way and to what extent processes can and do shape outcomes” (Pettigrew, 2014).
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