Essay on Impact of Microfinance Upon Developing Countries

Essay on Impact of Microfinance Upon Developing Countries

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Question: “Microfinance appears to offer a ‘win-win’ solution, where both financial institutions and poor clients profit” (Morduch, 1999). Critically assess this statement with reference to the empirical literature.

Introduction
Microfinance has achieved growing significance as a tool for poverty alleviation with the year 2005 marked as the United Nations International Year of Microcredit. Over the years, the world has witnessed a remarkable growth in the number of institutions offering microfinance and the number of clients reached. Figures reported to the Microcredit Summit Campaign show that as at 2007, 3,352 institutions offered microfinance to about 155 million clients, 68 percent of which were defined as poor clients. (Daley-Harris 2009) This represents an increase to the 54.5 percent of microfinance offered to poor clients in 1997. The study also showed that the number of institutions offering microfinance had increased by more than 400 percent. These statistics alone make a compelling argument for the impact of microfinance but statistics do not always show the whole picture. The widely-held assumption has generally been that microfinance is an essential tool for reducing poverty in a society. However, this assumption has been based mostly on case studies and anecdotes and has not always been the case. Studies conducted by the Snodgrass and Sebstad, 2002 on behalf of the USAID on microfinance banks in different countries have shown that the impact of microfinance on net income gains of borrowers varies from country to country. One another widely held myth is that the institutions that offer microfinance must be making profits because there must be some sort of profit in it for them. It is also difficult to truly measu...


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.... Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 53, 339-371
• Mahajan, V. (1997) Is microcredit the answer to poverty eradication. Microfinance Gateway.
• Matthews, K and Thompson, J. (2005) The Economics of Banking. London: Wiley and Sons. 8-16.
• Microcredit Summit (1997) 'Declaration and Plan of Action', available at www.microcreditsummit.org/declaration.htm
• Morduch, J. (1999) 'The microfinance promise', Journal of Economic Literature XXVII: 1569-614.
• Morduch, J. (2000) The Microfinance Schism. World Development, Vol. 28, 617-629.
• Ray, D. (1998) Development Economics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
• Ray, D. (1998)
• Stiglitz J. and Weiss, I. (1981) Credit rationing in markets with imperfect information. American Economic Review. Vol. 71, 3, 393-410.
• The Economist (2005) The hidden wealth of the poor. Print edition.
• www.themix.org

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