The review presented in this chapter outlines the integration of electric vehicles with the electricity generated from wind energy to improve jurisdictions energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The first section discusses wind as a renewable energy source and its share in future global energy mix to meet the increased electricity demand while still reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The second section explains the fundamentals of different types of electric vehicles and describes the research related to the impact of electrification of vehicles in transportation sector. The final section summarizes the findings presented in existing literature related to the potential environmental impact of the electric vehicles using the regional wind generated electricity to address greenhouse gas emissions and to improve energy security.
1.1 Renewable Energy
In the recent years, the global demand for energy is rapidly growing with increasing human population, urbanization and modernization (Asif & Muneer, 2008). According to the IEA’s World Energy Outlook (WEO), the global primary energy demand is projected to increase by 35 percent from 2008 to 2035 (IEA, 2011). Today, fossil fuels – notably oil, gas and coal accounts for majority share of primary energy supply and it will remain to be dominant energy sources to meet the global energy demand in 2035. However, the share of fossil fuels sources in global primary energy mix will decline to 74 % in 2035 compared over 81% in 2008 (IEA, 2011). Furthermore, the share of renewables to energy growth is likely to be increased from 5% (1990-2010) to 18% (2010-2030) (BP, 2011).
Renewable energy sources include solar, wind, biomass, hydro, geothermal and wave an...
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...ar to backup power by providing power stored in energy storage devices back to electric grid to balance the supply and demand; however it also provides the additional storage for utilities when the energy is excess in availability for later use. For example, when wind power is excessive in production, utilities stores the excess wind generated electricity in to batteries and restore when there is no wind or high energy demand. (Kempton & Dhanju, 2006). Energy storage technique could help utilities to decrease the variability of the system and improves the maximum utilization of wind energy in to their energy mix. Some of the major energy storage technologies available in the market are pumped hydro energy storage (PHES), compressed air energy storage (CAES), Electric thermal storage (ETS) and battery energy storage (BES) etc., (Ibrahim, Ilinca, & Perronb, 2008).
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