Chinn and Kramer (2011) defines Middle-range theory as the relative classification for theory that embodies concepts, relationships, and purposes that reflect limited aspects of broad phenomenon. It is known to address more concrete and focused phenomena than grand theory. According to Smith and Liehr (2014), the theories under this portfolio have predictions, explanations and descriptions responding to questions on nursing phenomena but do not cover the concerned discipline on full range. Derived in 1981, the Theory of Goal Attainment sought to answer the question of what the nature of nursing is. King gave the answer to this as “the way in which nurses, in their role, do with and for individuals that differentiates nursing from other professionals” (Parker & Smith, 2010, 148). This framework bases on the assumption of human beings as the focus of nursing. Nursing aims at promoting, maintaining and restoring he...
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...lleen, M. B. & King, I. M. (2007). Viewpoint: Use of King’s conceptual system, nursing informatics, and nursing classification systems for global communication. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge, 18 (2), 51 – 57. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-618X.2007.00050.x
Meleis, A. I. (2012). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Parker, M. E. & Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
Smith, M. J. & Liehr, P. R. (Eds.). (2014). Middle range theory for nursing. New York, NY: Springer.
Tomey, A. M. & Alligood, M. R. (2002). Nursing theorists and their work (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby.
Williams, L.A. (2001). Imogene King’s Interacting Systems Theory: Application in Emergency and Rural Nursing. Online Journal of Nursing and Health Care, 2 (1), 25–30
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