The human activities are continuing to affect the global climate by emission of Green House Gases (GHGs). Study shows that the temperature of the earth mean surface air has been increasing over 100 years. (IPCC, 2013) Although comparing with other industries or transports modes, shipping has relative small emission of Carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the most important GHG emission, the amount of CO2 emission is still in a high level, 1046 million tones and 3.3% of the global CO2 emissions in 2007.(IMO,2009)
In the year 1992, 154 nations signed United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which became the basic framework of regulations on the reduction of GHG. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC sets the binding obligations for developed countries. According to the “common but differentiating responsibility (CBDR)”principle of UNFCCC, the developing countries have no binding targets of reductions. In the same year in 1997, International Maritime Organization (IMO) added a new annex (Annex VI, the Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships) to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL73/78)，aim to minimize the air pollution emitted from ships.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the political, economic, technical, and scientific dimensions of the IMO debate in relation to CO2 emission reduction from ships. In the next chapter, we discuss the current measures and policies to reduced the emission; in chapter 3, we discuss the key plays in the climate debate; in chapter 4 we compare the process and outcome of IMO Climate with the amendment of mandated regulation of double hulls. And in chapter 5, we draw the conclusions and ...
... middle of paper ...
...sider about a proper level of levy in the METS as well as ICF. Since the shipping is a relatively environment-friendly mode of transports, the mode shift from shipping to others will lead to the reduction in sea sector and total amount of GHGs emission will increase.
In the political dimension, the most likely development is the mandatory of EEDI limit. Unlike other policies which ships should be monitored every year, EEDI is more cost-effective. And several years after the mandated implements on the new ships, we can see a wide range of reduction in shipping.
A.Warris. (2012, 9 25). UNFCCC and IMO the GHG debate contimues. Retrieved from sustainable shipping: http://www.sustainableshipping.com/forum/blogs/65/116237/Anne-Marie-Warris/UNFCCC-and-IMO-the-GHG-debate-continues
IMO. (2009). Second IMO GHG Study.
WTO. (2013). World Trade Report.
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