The Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors Essay

The Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors Essay

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Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms that occur from the hormonal endocrine system. These tumors can take place in any location of the body; however the most common are found in gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems, islet cells of the pancreatic system, follicular cells in the thyroid, as well as cells in the pituitary, parathyroid, and medullary glands. Most common tumors are paraganglioma, neuroblastomas, pheochromocytomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas, neural crest tumors, pituitary adenomas and paragangliomas. Nuclear medicine utilizes the Octreoscan, a tagged peptide to 111Indium via the somatostatin analog to dictate the size of the tumor, look for suspected tumor locations, or metastasis of the tumors (Hanson, 2001).
111Indium is the radionuclide of choice for imaging neuroendocrine tumors because of its half-life of 2.8 days with gamma energies of 173 and 247 keV. Tagging 111Indium to pentetreotide, a tagged peptide (also known as octreotide), the radionuclide binds to somatostatin receptors found on the surface body cells. Somatostatin is a growth inhibiting neuropeptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored and released from the anterior pituitary, which allows the secretion of gastrin, insulin, glucagon, calcitonin, growth hormone, and serotonin (Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc. 1994). Somatostatin receptor sites include the anterior pituitary, lymphocytes, pancreatic islet cells, as well as tumors that may be located within the brain, breast, and lung. Less than 10% of patients have noted abdominal issues, feeling of queasiness, or pain at the place of inoculation. Before receiving the dose of 111In-pentetreotide, patients with pancreatic insulinoma should receive an intravenous injection of glucose to ensure t...

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...eline for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 111In-pentetreotide. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 42 (7), 1134-1138.
Cryer, P. Shlomo, M., Polonsky, K. S., Larsen, P. R., Kronenberg, H. M. (2011). Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders.
Hanson, M.W. (2001). Scintigraphic evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors. Applied Radiology, 30 (6), 11-17.
Krenning E.P., De Jong, M, Kooij, P.M., et al. (1999). Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue for peptide receptor scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy. Annals of Oncology, 10 (2), 23-29.
Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc. (1994). Somatostatin receptor imaging for neuroendocrine Tumors: Product Monograph/OctreoScan.
Yarbro J.W., Bornstein, R.S., Mastrangelo, M.J. (1994). Somatostatin receptor imaging: Tumor localization, detection, and therapeutic implications. Seminars in Oncology, 21 (13), 1-71.

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