It is very hard to find a political philosopher who is able to give a complete and fulfilling explanation of society. Theories are simply models to first analyze and then improve society. Hence, since many variables affect them, they are not objective, neither are all-encompassing. It is also necessary to draw a distinction between concrete solutions, which could be valid in real life, and desirable solutions, which could be imprecise relatively to some starting conditions. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the role of policymakers is not to define factual rules just to maintain the status quo. Since they should vote laws with the purpose of improving our lives, only a normative, and even utopian, conception can change the actual situation.
If the current political system was to be overthrown, it should be replaced with a real democracy. Using the adjective real underlines that it would not be simply a liberal state with some democratic principles, but a community in which each single member is take into consideration. Policy makers should try to overlap the interests of everyone, no one excluded. Obviously it is very hard or even impossible to achieve it, but through compromises politics can attempt to improve our society considering all the voices. For these reasons, majority would not be the best solution because some people would be completely excluded. Also, to guarantee the application of democratic values, the government has to intervene to create the required conditions. It is insufficient to state some rights if there are not the conditions to fulfill them.
Rousseau and Rawls, two political philosophers, strongly believe in the idea of community and provide a state system which considers the interests of ...
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...eful society, at least idealistically. In fact, the main controversy is that those political systems seem simply unachievable in real life. Yet, this is not enough to prevent governments from striving to improve.
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1754), in The Social Contract and Discourses, trans. G.D.H. Cole, London: Dent, 1920, extracts
• Rousseau, The Social Contract, trans. Jonathan Bennett, www.earlymoderntexts.com, 2010, bk. 1, chs. 1-8, and bk. 2, chs. 3 and 7
• John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001), §§ 13.1-13.4, 14.3, 18.1-2, 36, and 41.4-42.3
• Michael Sandel, ‘Justice’, Episode 8
• Rawls, ‘The Idea of Public Reason Revisited’, in The Law of Peoples, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. 130-180, Introduction and §§ 1, 2.4, 3, and 4
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