According to Transparency International, Afghanistan is ranked the 2nd most corrupted country in Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2009( “Corruption”.) Corruption is defined as “the abuse of public roles or resources for private benefit. “(Johnston). Gordon white categorized corruption into three classes. Class A includes corruptions which are illegal and for private gains such as misuse of public funds, cheating, stealing assets of government, and” inside trading in stock markets.”(White 152 ). Class B covers corruptions that government officials or institutions illegally utilize from resources under their control for private profits. Class C involves corruptions that officials misuse their authorities and cross the boundaries of law for their private gain. Afghanistan has been a victim of all types of corruption defined by White. Bribery in the government offices is officially practiced, public funds are not spent appropriately, and senior officials involved in criminal activities such as smuggling, kidnapping and ro...
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Johnston, Michael. "Syndromes of Corruption:Wealth." Johnston, Michael. Power and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 10-12.
White, Gordon. "Corruption and the Transition from Socialism in China." Journal of Law and Society (March 1996): 152.
Arnoldy, Ben. "The man leading Afghanistan's anti-corruption fight." Christian Science Monitor 16 Nov. 2009: 6. Academic Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 Jan. 2010.
Philp, Mark. "Peacebuilding and Corruption." International Peacekeeping (13533312) 15.3 (2008): 310-327. Academic Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 19 Jan. 2010
Pathak, R. D., et al. "E-governance and Corruption-developments and Issues in Ethiopia." Public Organization Review 7.3 (2007): 199. Academic Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 20 Jan. 2010.
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