Identifying Novel Solo-LTRs Within an Individual Essay

Identifying Novel Solo-LTRs Within an Individual Essay

Length: 1982 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

To determine the solo-LTR region I first ran an electronic PCR on s240c3, s165c5 and s399c8 primers. I then aligned the PCR products to each other using a series BLAST searches, identifying a related sequence of ~968bp expected to be the same in each PCR product. Using BLAST I identified the start and end points of this sequence in relation to each of the PCR products of the 3 primers used in the experiment, allowing me to determine the direct repeats and thus pick out the Solo-LTR sequence and pre-integration site. From the size of the solo-LTR sequences, the size of the whole sequence and the identification of the direct repeat sequences I was able to work out the size of the preintegration site by taking the whole PCR product size and eliminating the size of one of the direct repeats and the entire solo-LTR sequence. The results are as follows:


968 = Solo-LTR size 584 = Pre-integration site size


967= Solo-LTR size 231 = Preintegration site size


968= Solo-LTR 295 = Preintegration site


Figure 1 Result of gel electrophoresis of my DNA sample
The product of the reaction of the A primer seems to have failed as no bands were produced apart from the terminal point of the migration which is too small to be considered as either a preintegration site or a retrovirus containing section, not only did my partner seem to have the same problem, most if not all of the submitted gels seem to have no bands for the A set of primers.
For the E primer sets, there are two strong bands. Around the 1018 MWM bands which approximately cor...

... middle of paper ...

...cluded here but ~15 were used in the search) apart from the last base on the direct repeat, so the sequence is unlikely to be totally irrelevant, it may represent a retro-element that the solo-LTR was derived from.

One method of identifying novel solo-LTRs within an individual would be to sequence their genome (pyrosequencing makes this somewhat viable) and align it to the current human genome sequence using NCBI blast, “jumps” may be noticed at certain point (i.e. a section which starts at base 260 in the human genome sequence but 960 in the individual sequence) the insert is likely to be due to a large retro element integration event, solo-LTRs can be easily confirmed by identifying direct repeats. You can then use knowledge of the flanking sequences to produce PCR primers to test for it in others.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Identifying Identity Within Equiano Essay

- Identifying Identity Within Equiano Within The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Equiano skillfully depicts the life he once knew, and the life he slowly and painstakingly ‘earns’ throughout his time in slavery after being kidnapped from his home in Africa. Equiano became one of the many men, women and children kidnapped and sold as slaves to the western world. Within the text he is a tactful and exact narrator when it comes to recalling the hardships he faced and observed, as well as his accounted fondness of the kind(er) few he met throughout his journeys....   [tags: The INtresting Narrative, Olaudah Equiano]

Powerful Essays
1355 words (3.9 pages)

Free College Essays - An Analysis of Solo by Jack Higgins

- An Analysis of Solo This book, in my opinion, is a very good example of a serial killer, and his ironic demise. The book begins with an example of serial killing, where a powerful, influential man is killed by an assassin. The book, after the killing, follows the killer to an unusual place-a concert hall. There it is found that the killer is internationally famous concert pianist John Mikali. This man, Mikali, has been tormented by death and pain all of his life. His family has been based through a stout naval history, as his father, and relatives past have all been commanders and captains of great naval ships....   [tags: Solo Essays]

Free Essays
900 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on Individual Identity And Individual Identities

- Individual identity is how an individual relates to them self, as well as how others relate to the individual (Bessant & Watts 2002, p.153). This occurs as other people reflect back to us their impression of ourselves (Plummer 2010, p.22). Indeed, the body is central to how our self is recognised by others and how we derive our identities (Back et al. 2012, p.98). Individual identities are shaped in various ways, such as with others’ belief in essentialism – the assumption that all people of a certain group have the same characteristics (Bessant & Watts 2002, p.154), or via face-to-face relationships (Back et al....   [tags: Sociology, Individual, Identity formation]

Powerful Essays
1744 words (5 pages)

Identifying A Deceased Person 's Identity Essay

- Murder Victims In our communities there are often times when families not only have to undergo the pain that comes with the passing of a family member, but not being able to identify their loved one as well is another struggle they have to overcome at times. Over the years there have been several of occasions where crime scene investigators have been tasked with identifying a deceased individual, while some people wonder what the point of it is and others arguing that it is important for a family....   [tags: Person, Individual, Fingerprint, Victim]

Powerful Essays
1033 words (3 pages)

Essay on Knowledge And Individual Power : The Birthmark

- ... So the writer says that the crazies usually are godlike. They have an understanding that is incomprehensible. The writer also states the truth that for one not to be named crazy, he or she usually has to go with the flow, also known as the majority. Having the knowledge and understanding that the society at large is not always right, gives one the individual power needed to stand alone and stand their ground. The power to even propel change in the society. Rhetoric is the writer’s ability to persuade his audience by using the available means....   [tags: Knowledge, Understanding, Individual, Perception]

Powerful Essays
1014 words (2.9 pages)

Individual Counseling Theories and Approaches Essay

- Individual Counseling Theories are varied. In this paper we will examine three of the most prominent counseling theories, their concepts, techniques, strengths and limitations. We will begin with the Adlerian Theory first followed by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. At the end we will finish with Solution Focused Brief Theory. All three theories have their strengths and limitations but can be and usually are combined or used together to some extent to better serve the client. One theory might examine the client’s background and underlying cause for the complaints, while the other might focus on the present and how to solve the problems in a shorter period of time....   [tags: Individual Counseling Theories]

Powerful Essays
2682 words (7.7 pages)

Power Of Numbers : The Individual Versus The Community Essay

- Power in Numbers: The Individual Versus the Community When it comes to sports, such as Football, American fanatics have a tendency to idolize a particular player rather than spreading the affinity equally amongst all of the team’s players. Although the player is individually adored, one skilled football player does not make a good team. If an individual is always focusing on making themselves better, there is no guarantee that when the team comes together, their self-centered mindset will adjust to working as a team....   [tags: Individualism, Individual, Community, Conflict]

Powerful Essays
1597 words (4.6 pages)

Kurzweil V4.5 and Solo 6 Comparison Essay

- Kurzweil Mac V4.5 and Solo 6 (Read Out Loud) Comparison Background Windham High School, which opened in August 2009, offers a technology rich curriculum supported by a one-to-one laptop program. Each student is equipped with a MacBook laptop containing a suite of programs to support student learning and productivity. Embedded within the MacBook laptop is an easily accessible text-to-speech tool that students can use for auditory support. Students with qualified learning disabilities are enrolled in Bookshare, an organization that provides access to digital materials and free software to access the digital materials....   [tags: productivity, eBooks, software, technology]

Powerful Essays
1074 words (3.1 pages)

Identifying Problematic Stress Within Service Oriented Businesses Essay examples

- Identifying Problematic Stress Within Service Oriented Businesses INTRODUCTION Work can cause stress and also be affected by it. Stress causes many problems for American businesses today. One of the major sources of stress in a person's life can be his or her job. Deadlines, problems with coworkers, boss trouble, and long hours can all contribute to feelings of being overwhelmed and helpless. Fortunately, there are ways to combat the stress that the workplace can bring. Often, researchers define stress as the psychological and physiological conditions that a person experiences when they perceive a situation as threatening, harmful, or demanding....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
1613 words (4.6 pages)

Essay on Individiual Understanding

- Individual Understanding I agree with functionalists, specifically the strong Artificial Intelligence (AI) camp, concerning the concept of understanding. While John Searle poses a strong non-functionalist case in his AChinese Room@ argument, I find that his definition of Ato understand@ falls short and hampers his point. I criticize his defense that understanding rests on a standardized knowledge of meaning, but not before outlining the general background of the issue. Functionalists define thought and mental states in terms of input and output....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1823 words (5.2 pages)