Essay about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Essay about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Length: 1224 words (3.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Introduction
One of the rarest of congenital cardiac defects is Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, HLHS. This syndrome is described as a collection of anomalies affecting the left heart and connecting structures. Due to advancements in surgical intervention mortality rates in neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome have decreased. Management of these patients requires a symphony of multidisciplinary teams including fetal and pediatric cardiologist, cardiac surgeons, neonatologist, pulmonologist, nutritionist and family counselors. Options currently comprise of heart transplant, three-staged palliative surgery and comfort care. There may be co-morbidities present which further complicate treatment, but with surgical intervention the prognosis of this once deemed fatal condition is improved. This paper will examine the anatomy and abnormal function of the hypoplastic left heart, three staged surgical intervention and management of patient with HLHS.

Body
Anatomy
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart defect where the structures in the left heart are severely underdeveloped. The left ventricle, aorta and aortic arch are unable to adequately pump and deliver blood to the body due to their size. Aortic and mitral valve stenosis or atresia is present and in some cases atrial septal defect accompanies. (CDC) Normal fetal circulation involves the use of three shunts that act as liver, heart and lung bypass in order to supply the systemic circulation of oxygen rich blood. Fetal blood is oxygenated by the placenta and travels to the fetus via the umbilical vein. The ductus venous the first shunt which encountered and channels oxygenated blood pass the liver. The shunted blood is then carried via the inferior...


... middle of paper ...


...on is as follows; oxygen-poor blood returns directly to the lungs via the new connection between the pulmonary arteries and the superior and inferior vena cava. Gas exchange occurs in the lungs which then return oxygen-rich blood via the pulmonary arteries
Superior and inferior vena cava carry deoxygenated blood directly to the lungs by dumping into the pulmonary artery. Blood is then returned to the heart by the pulmonary veins to the left and right atria which are now connected then to the right ventricle which functions as the main pumping chamber. Blood exits the heart via the reconstructed aorta which has been attached to the pulmonary artery trunk.
The circulatory pathway is not restored to normal but redirected to ensure adequate gas exchange in the lungs as well as creating a sufficient pump in the right ventricle to support adequate systemic circulation.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Essay

- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or HLHS, is a rare congenital heart defect. This means that it is present at birth. It is the underdevelopment of the left side of the heart, which is the side that pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. A diagnosis of HLHS may encompass a variety of defects in the left side of the heart, with the most commonly affected structures being the left ventricle, mitral valve, aorta, and aortic valve. In a healthy heart, oxygen-poor or de-saturated blood returns to the right atrium from the body, flows to the right ventricle....   [tags: Heart Defect, Diagnosis, Treatment]

Strong Essays
2104 words (6 pages)

Essay Congenital And Left Heart Syndrome

- ... That is why surgery is a must. Surgical advances throughout the years have changed the prognosis of this heart condition that was once classified as fatal. This rare heart condition affects roughly 900 newborns each year in the United States resulting with the majority undergoing surgery the first days of their life. If a child’s parent(s) decide not to have surgery performed on their child, there is no chance of survival. Surgery is the only hope for survival for a child with congenital hypoplastic left heart syndrome....   [tags: Heart, Blood, Pulmonary artery, Right ventricle]

Strong Essays
1026 words (2.9 pages)

Eisenmenger Syndrome : A Heart Defect Essay

- First and foremost, Eisenmenger syndrome was initially described in 1897 when German physician, Victor Eisenmenger, reported on a patient with symptoms of dyspnea and cyanosis from infancy that subsequently developed heart failure (Connolly, 2014). The postmortem description was revealed and a ventricular septal defect was discovered (El-Chami et al., 2014a). With that being said, this had been the first time that the link between a large congenital cardiac shunt defect and the development of pulmonary hypertension had ever been noted (El-Chami et al., 2014b)....   [tags: Heart, Blood, Lung, Pulmonary artery]

Strong Essays
1207 words (3.4 pages)

The Left Ventricle of the Heart Essay

- The Left Ventricle of the Heart The left ventricle is one of the four hollow chambers of the heart. Being the largest chamber, it has an ovular shape and it occupies most of the left lateral and anterior planes of the heart. It also occupies most of the apex of the heart. The walls of the left ventricle are denser and stronger than that of the right ventricle. The thicker walls of the left ventricle support its tremendous workload of pumping blood at great pressure out of the heart. As the left atrium contracts, the mitral valve opens, which releases stored oxygen rich blood into the left ventricle....   [tags: Heart Anatomy, Health]

Strong Essays
833 words (2.4 pages)

The Heart And Blood Vessels Essay

- ... The heart on average beats 100,000 a day but the average beats per minute (Bpm) is on average 60-100 beats per minute. Because being such a strong organ of the body it can be considered a muscle rather than an organ. The size of the heart would be the fist size of one’s body, has three layers, and has four chambers and heart valves. (Fremgen, Bonnie F., Suzanne S. Frucht., 2013) The walls of the heart is thick with three layers: the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. Endocardium is the inner lining of the heart....   [tags: Heart, Blood, Left ventricle, Artery]

Strong Essays
790 words (2.3 pages)

Left Neglected: The Power of the Mind Essay

- “Left Neglect…is a real neurological syndrome that occurs due to damage to the right hemisphere of the brain, such as might follow a right-hemisphere stroke” (Genova 323). Lisa Genova, author of “Left Neglected”, explores the bewildering neurological disorder of Left Neglect through the eyes of Sarah Nickerson. Sarah is a multi-tasking champion who holds a prestigious position as the vice president of human resources at Berkley Consulting, is a mother of three kids, and a wife to her husband Bob Nickerson, who also holds a prestigious position at another company....   [tags: Neurological Syndrome, Brain Damage]

Strong Essays
867 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on The Heart Of Heart Disease

- Just as breast cancer is killing our African American women, heart disease is also one of the major diseases killing our women. Heart disease is one of the nation’s leading causes of death in both woman and men. About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States (Americas heart disease burden, 2013). Some facts about heart disease are every year about 935,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 610,000 are a first heart attack victim. 325,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack....   [tags: Myocardial infarction, Heart, Obesity]

Strong Essays
1785 words (5.1 pages)

Children With Down Syndrome May Be More Friendly Essays

- ... A GP can support the child by dealing with general health issues. They can refer the child to hospitals and specialist when appropriate. The Paediatrician is a doctor specialising in the care of babies and children. GPs can refer children onto the Paediatrician, who can then offer advice and information on Down syndrome. They can also refer the child to specialist doctors and consultants. Specialist doctors and consultants are specialists who can help with certain healthcare needs that the child with Down syndrome may have....   [tags: Developmental psychology, Down syndrome]

Strong Essays
1212 words (3.5 pages)

Left-Sided Heart Failure Essay

- Diagnosis: Left-Sided Heart Failure Left-sided heart failure is the most common type of heart failure, and it is a result of left-ventricular dysfunction. This disease poses a significant threat to patients because the primary function of the left side of the heart is to provide sufficient oxygenated blood to satisfy the metabolic demands of the body’s cells. Understanding the main function of this portion of the heart will help with the understanding of other complications associated with this diseased....   [tags: disease, echocardiogram]

Strong Essays
1826 words (5.2 pages)

The Problem Of Down Syndrome Essay

- ... If translocation is found in a child with Down syndrome, it is important to examine the parents’ chromosomes, since in at least one-third of the cases, a parent may be a carrier of the translocation. This form of chromosome error is found in 3 - 4 percent of the individuals with Down syndrome. Diagnosis The child with Down syndrome is in need of the same kind of medical care as any other child. The pediatrician or family physician should provide general health maintenance, immunizations, attend to medical emergencies, and offer support and counseling to the family....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]

Strong Essays
1260 words (3.6 pages)