‘Hypercholesteremia Elevates Level of Cholesterol in the Blood Essays

‘Hypercholesteremia Elevates Level of Cholesterol in the Blood Essays

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‘Hypercholesteremia’ is a condition exhibiting elevated level of cholesterol in the blood and considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The use of probiotics, in particular Lactobacillus spp. has been gaining much interest in the recent years. More over, owing to its numerous and potential health-promoting benefits, there is a considerable interest in the use of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents (Begley, 2006). Gastrointestinal tract contains several lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which could be physiologically important for maintaining gut health. The LAB is widely used in the production of fermented foods, including dairy products such as yoghurt, cheese, butter, buttermilk, kefir and koumiss. Bile tolerance is one of the desirable criteria for probiotic lactobacilli that can survive in the intestinal environment. The cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic lactobacilli is attributed to the presence of “bile salt hydrolase” (BSH) activity. Bile salt hydrolase belong to the choloylglycine hydrolase family of enzymes, classified as N-terminal nucleophilic (Ntn) hydrolases with an N-terminal cysteine residue, which is abundant in wide variety of gastrointestinal bacteria such as Lactobacillus (Tanaka et. al, 1999), Bifidobacterium (Jones et. al., 2008), Bacteriodes (Kawamoto et. al., 1989), Clostridium (Coleman et. al. , 1995) and Enterococcus (Franz et. al., 2001) species. Bile acids are conjugates of N-acyl amidates with either glycine or taurine, synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and secreted into the small intestine. Bile salts have significant role in lipid metabolism, which emulsify and solubilize dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins through its detergent activity. Bile salts are deconj...


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...onent. The tubes were heated for 10 min at 60°C in a water bath. After cooling, 5 ml of hexane was dispensed to all tubes and vortexed for 5 min at 20-second interval. Then 3 ml of water was added and mixed thoroughly. Tubes were allowed to stand for 15 min at 30°C to permit phase separation. 2.5 ml of hexane layer was transferred to a fresh test tube and allowed to dry completely. 1.5 ml of ferric chloride reagent was added to each test tube and allowed to stand for 10 min. One ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added along the sides of the tube. The mixture was vortexed and allowed to stand for 45 min at 30°C. The absorbance was measured at 540 nm in spectrophotometer (Model UV-1700, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). The concentration of cholesterol was determined using cholesterol standard graph. The percentage assimilation was calculated using the following formula:

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