During formulation of new and existent drugs in pharmaceutics, hygroscopicity is one of the important physical parameters that are studied so as to enhance the efficacy, stability and handling of the drug. Hygroscopicity has always been an important aspect in pharmaceutics as the bulk of the drugs either in tablet or solution form is normally hygroscopic. Up to now, there remains no universally recognized definition of hygroscopicity because it is driven by both thermodynamic and kinetic forces. Hygroscopicity can mean the amount of moisture absorbed or adsorbed by a substance from the atmosphere as well as the rate of moisture uptake of a substance that is in a known relative humidity (Hilfiker, 2006, p. 236). A solid that can readily absorb moisture when exposed to the atmosphere of a known relative humidity is said to be hygroscopic while the ability to absorb or adsorb moisture is known as hygroscopy.
Hygroscopy is usually known to occur either through absorption, adsorption or deliquescence where the adsorbing or absorbing material changes physically or chemically in many of its physicochemical characteristics. Due to the adverse effects that it has on the end products, highly hygroscopic drugs will usually give weight fluctuations which lead to tablets or film-coat cracking (Wermuth, 2008, p. 758).This has led to development of formulations under controlled, humid conditions and expensive packaging are required. This has further driven many companies to come up with rules and regulations covering hygroscopicity.
The drug ingredients used in drug manufacture are usually aqueous salts that are prepared using strongly acidic or basic hydroxy-acids salts and counter ions, which possess a h...
... middle of paper ...
...injection analysis among others.
Ahuja S., & Scypinski S. (2001). Handbook of modern pharmaceutical analysis. London: Academic Press
Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., Iu, L., Zhang, G.G. (2009). Developing solid oral dosage forms: Pharmaceutical theory and practice. London: Academic Press.
Hilfiker, R. (2006). Polymorphism: In the pharmaceutical industry. Winheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & co. KGaA.
Gad, C. S. (2008). Pharmaceutical manufacturing handbook: regulations and quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Wermuth, C. G. (2008). The practice of medicinal chemistry. London, WC: Academic Press.
Gaud, R. S. (2008). Pharmaceutics. Abhyudaya Pragati: Nirali Prakashan.
Griffin, J. P. (2009). The textbook of pharmaceutical medicine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Podczeck, F. (2004). Pharmaceutical capsules. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Communication in the field of pharmaceutics is very important. It is important to understand how and what forms of communication best fit for your practice setting. To name a few simple and appropriate gestures, patient counseling, verbal and non-verbal all play vital roles in forming quality relationships and understanding of the pharmacy world around us. What we are trying to say is not always what the listeners hears. It is important to be as clear and precise with your answers as possible and it up to both parties to speak up if further explanation need be obtained.... [tags: Pharmaceutics]
1098 words (3.1 pages)
- Zoetis is the number one animal pharmaceutical company worldwide. It used to be a part of the parent company Pfizer pharmaceuticals but it became its own company in 2013(Zoetis,2013). The company is a publically traded company that has a sole focus on animal health and customer service. Most sales for Zoetis are done through livestock medicines but the companion animal department is catching up quickly. Zoetis prides itself on being the most loved by their customers (Zoetis, 2013). Zoetis is a growing company that has sixty years of work behind it (Zoetis, 2014).... [tags: Animal Pharmaceutics, Worldwide Company]
1395 words (4 pages)
- THESIS STATEMENT: Today’s doctors stand overly dependent on chemical pharmaceutics when drafting treatment plans for patients. Physicians should first endorse treatment plans involving natural, homeopathic medicines, especially when aiming to solve miniscule health issues. INTENT: I intend to help readers question their healing practices and the state of today’s formal medicine—to influence thought, education of the reality and exploration of the natural medicine realm. “INTRODUCTION:” As a super advocate for the “all natural lifestyle,” I have long been interested in exploring the medicinal sphere.... [tags: Medicine, Alternative medicine, Physician]
1359 words (3.9 pages)
- ... Dr. Youle and his colleagues worked alongside Scott Martin using robotics to introduce small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the human cell which individually inhibited around 22,000 genes. This was followed by automated microscopy to determine how silencing each gene would affect the ability of parkin to tag the mitochondria. The researchers used RNAi to identify genes that aid parkin in tagging damaged mitochondria. They found that genes, TOMM7, HSPAI1L, BAG4 and SIAH3, may assist in either inhibiting parkin (TOMM7, HSPAI1L) or enhancing tagging (BAG4, SIAH3).... [tags: medicine, Parkinson’s and Lung Cancer]
1196 words (3.4 pages)
- Preface: In the Pharmaceutical Industry an ethical dilemma has arise over the years of gift giving from the drug companies to the doctors they encounter during their drug promotion visits. The medical sales consultants influence doctors to purchase their drugs and other medical items by giving them prestigious gifts to intrigue them to choose their company over their competitors. The purpose of my studies is to analyze gift giving in the industry and determine if the action is ethical or unethical.... [tags: drug, promotion, prescriptions]
1857 words (5.3 pages)
- S.959—Pharmaceutical Compounding Quality, Security and Accountability Act, was introduced into the U.S Senate May 15, 2013 by Thomas Harkin, Democratic senator of Iowa, along with the support of five cosponsors. The bill, if it’d passed would have amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) to expand the regulation of compounded drugs. It would have allowed the Federal Government to oversee drug compounders’ operations to ensure drug quality and safety. Most recently, the bill was referred to the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee but never made it to the floor for a vote.... [tags: public health, welfare, quality, pharmaceutics]
946 words (2.7 pages)
- 8. Quality, safety and efficacy of drugs Safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals are two fundamental issues of importance in drug therapy. The safety of a drug is determined by its pharmacological and toxicological profile as well as the adverse effects caused by the impurities in bulk and dosage forms. The impurities in drugs often possess unwanted pharmacological or toxicological effects by which any benefit from their administration may be outweighed (Nageswara at el., 2003). Therefore, it is quite obvious that the products intended for human consumption must be characterized as completely as possible.... [tags: Safety, Pharmaceuticals, drugs, Safe and Effective]
956 words (2.7 pages)
- Large pharmaceutical industries are making large profits on medications. Having such a high cost for medication prevents patients from receiving the care that they need. These companies are overcharging for medications that are essential to maintaining the health of patients. This may result in patients resorting to desperate measure such as stealing, crime, and other illegal acts. The pharmaceutical industry may require a different set of moral standard because in a way these laws are preventing patients from a quality life.... [tags: Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacology, Pharmacy]
1598 words (4.6 pages)
- Large pharmaceutical industries are making big profits on medications because they charge high prices for profit. These pharmaceutical companies are overcharging for medications that are essential to maintaining the health of patients. Having such a high cost for medication prevents patients from receiving the care that they need. This may result in patients resorting to desperate measure such as stealing and other illegal acts. The pharmaceutical industry need to reevaluate their ethical standards because the way that these companies are going about pricing their drugs is preventing patients from living a health life.... [tags: Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical industry]
802 words (2.3 pages)
- Key facts Copper pharmaceuticals, Inc were a major manufacturer for prescription drugs for medical and dental professions. Sales are done mainly with the detailers who were pharmacy school graduates and had couple years of experience as registered pharmacists in drugstores. Bob Marsh, with CPI for 12 years, married and had two children Marsh's initial salary was $35,000 and been raised to over $60,000 throughout his time with CPI Marsh has 6 different field supervisor throughout the time he was with CPI 60% of detailers had 10 or more years with CPI and only 8% turnover rate per year.... [tags: Case Study Copper Pharmaceuticals, solution]
1341 words (3.8 pages)