During formulation of new and existent drugs in pharmaceutics, hygroscopicity is one of the important physical parameters that are studied so as to enhance the efficacy, stability and handling of the drug. Hygroscopicity has always been an important aspect in pharmaceutics as the bulk of the drugs either in tablet or solution form is normally hygroscopic. Up to now, there remains no universally recognized definition of hygroscopicity because it is driven by both thermodynamic and kinetic forces. Hygroscopicity can mean the amount of moisture absorbed or adsorbed by a substance from the atmosphere as well as the rate of moisture uptake of a substance that is in a known relative humidity (Hilfiker, 2006, p. 236). A solid that can readily absorb moisture when exposed to the atmosphere of a known relative humidity is said to be hygroscopic while the ability to absorb or adsorb moisture is known as hygroscopy.
Hygroscopy is usually known to occur either through absorption, adsorption or deliquescence where the adsorbing or absorbing material changes physically or chemically in many of its physicochemical characteristics. Due to the adverse effects that it has on the end products, highly hygroscopic drugs will usually give weight fluctuations which lead to tablets or film-coat cracking (Wermuth, 2008, p. 758).This has led to development of formulations under controlled, humid conditions and expensive packaging are required. This has further driven many companies to come up with rules and regulations covering hygroscopicity.
The drug ingredients used in drug manufacture are usually aqueous salts that are prepared using strongly acidic or basic hydroxy-acids salts and counter ions, which possess a h...
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...injection analysis among others.
Ahuja S., & Scypinski S. (2001). Handbook of modern pharmaceutical analysis. London: Academic Press
Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., Iu, L., Zhang, G.G. (2009). Developing solid oral dosage forms: Pharmaceutical theory and practice. London: Academic Press.
Hilfiker, R. (2006). Polymorphism: In the pharmaceutical industry. Winheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & co. KGaA.
Gad, C. S. (2008). Pharmaceutical manufacturing handbook: regulations and quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Wermuth, C. G. (2008). The practice of medicinal chemistry. London, WC: Academic Press.
Gaud, R. S. (2008). Pharmaceutics. Abhyudaya Pragati: Nirali Prakashan.
Griffin, J. P. (2009). The textbook of pharmaceutical medicine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Podczeck, F. (2004). Pharmaceutical capsules. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
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