The claim that human rights are universal conveys the idea that people has such rights that are equal and inalienable simply for being human beings (Donnelly, 2007: 282-283). This claim is necessarily true in that “these rights are trans-historical or ahistorical” under “condition of possession” of certain identity (Chan, 1995: 28). The conceptual basis of such view on human rights and universality is natural laws, or natural rights, whose morality derives profoundly from religious, Christian in particular, principles which appeal to the inherent moral or ethical laws (Langlois, 2012: 342). Subsequent attempts to conceptualise human rights have provided different approaches and interpretations, for example ...
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...re by definition universal. Everyone has exactly the same rights, no exceptions.”? The former appears to be a justifiable part, as the findings of this essay suggest that the very concept of human rights is profoundly based on the notion of universality, as visible from the morality of human rights and various interpretations of universality proposed by Donnelly. The latter, however, though normatively true, is realistically an inapplicable claim; it has been challenged by various relativist approaches, including Asian values, which argue for different conceptions of such rights and implementing practices that stem from distinct historical and cultural backgrounds, if not the unwillingness of conventional socio-political authorities. Human rights, therefore, will require a more sophisticated conceptual ground for universalism which relativist claims cannot undermine.
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