Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Essay

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Essay

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Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Cervical Cancer

Introduction
In Hong Kong, cervical cancer ranks tenth among the female cancers (Department of Health, 2013). Although there is a decreasing trend in both the incidence rate and mortality rate of cervical cancer, recent statistics released by the Department of Health (2013) reveal that there are still around 400 new cases of cervical cancer every year and accounts for 3.2 percent of the new cancer cases in 2010. Therefore, it is important for the public to understand more about the causes and possible preventions of cervical cancer.
It has been proven that certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV) contribute to the majority of cervical cancer cases. According to the Department of Health (2007), prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in Hong Kong is approximately 7 to 11 percent in women population. Other than the high-risk HPV 16 and HPV 18, HPV 52 and HPV 58 are also commonly found in Hong Kong, where they account for 12.5 percent and 8.3 percent of cervical cancer cases respectively (Department of Health, 2007). While cervical screening is advocated by the government as an important early detection of cervical cancer, we believe that the significance of human papilloma virus vaccine in preventing cervical cancer should not be neglected as well.

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix. Cervix is the organ connecting the top of virginal tract and lies at the lower part of uterus. Infection of certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer.
The cervical cancer is commonly diagnosed by progressive clinical procedures. Pelvic examination, physical examination and case history are used to identify any signs an...


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... http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/ EPAR_-_Scientific_Discussion/human/000703/WC500021140.pdf

Hospital Authority. (2013). Cervical Cancer. Retrieved from http://www21.ha.org.hk/ smartpatient/en/cancerin_focus/details.html?id=152

Lie, A. K., & Kristensen, G. (2008). Human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA testing as a predictive marker for cervical carcinoma. Expert review of molecular diagnostics, 8(4), 405-415.

National Cancer Institute. (2011). Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/prevention/HPV-vaccine

National Cancer Institute. (2012). Pap and HPV Testing. Retrieved from http://www. cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/Pap-HPV-testing

World Health Organization. (2013). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Retrieved fromhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs380/en/

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