Human organ transplantation is known as the removal of a living tissue or organ from one individual by surgical operation, and it is placed into another individual, with the aim of improving the health of the recipient. It was started in the 1930s. In 1933, human renal graft was tried out by Voronoy, a Russian scientist, and it has vastly advanced since then. Human organ transplant is now viewed as treatment rather than experiments as they can now be performed more safely. This has been seen by the remarkable improvement on the medical care of patients with organ failures i.e heart disease, cirrhosis and renal failure.
Types of organ transplants
Cornea, face, hand, liver, heart, lung, pancreas and bone marrow are just some of the many organs that can be successfully transplanted. Kidney transplant is the most common and UK recorded 3257 kidney transplants in 2013. Human organ transplantation can occur from a dead (cadaver) or living donor. Living donors usually donate organs like the liver, which is able to regenerate and a kidney which a living individual has two and can donate one to a friend or relative.
There are different types of organ transplants and these are allografts, isographs, auto grafts and allograft.
Isograft transplantation is between two genetically identical individuals as they have a 99% full matching, ie in identical twins. Autografts are within an individual, from one part of the body to another part on the body. Allograft is the most common transplantation in medicine and it is between one human being to another, who is non-identical and usually unrelated and only match through the database on HLA typing. Xenograft is between different species, ie from animal to human.
Organ transplant in uk ...
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...lso enforces individual autonomy of the organ donor. Presumed consent is a strategy where one’s organs are take after they die unless they have requested not to donate. There are some who support this strategy as they see it as every person’s duty to donate their organs once they have no use for them anymore. Offering incentives can also be a good strategy to attract donors, however to a certain extend this can be seen as exploitation of the poor. The chronic shortage of organs leads policy makers to consider various incentives to donors and donor families that consent to procurement of organs when their loved one has died. However it raises criticism and can be questionable as it might commercialise human life and can lead to exploitation of the poor.
Over the past years organ transplant has become a safe procedure to improve the life style of people.
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