Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) Essay

Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) Essay

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a dangerous infection-initiating retrovirus which eventually becomes the causative agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in its host. There is no direct cure for HIV/AIDs, though there are many drug therapies to improve the quality of life for those infected with the virus. Given the immense difficulty in treating the virus, it is important to gain a better understanding of how the virus interacts with its host cell. Once known in its full detail, steps may be taken to find a cure for the virus.
Exposed on the surface of HIV is the envelope glycoprotein gp120 ligand. Present research shows that gp120 is essential for attaching to the CD4 receptor on T cells, HIV’s host cell.1 Once bound to the CD4 receptor, gp120 initiates a cascade of conformational changes in the virus’s gp120, leading to its dissociation from the viral membrane.2 This dissociation results in the exposure of the amino terminal hydrophobic domain of the gp41 which initiates fusion of the virus to the mature T cell membrane, allowing entry of the virus to the cell.2 HIV later kills the infected cells through the body’s own CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes.1
The main objective of this study is to identify the specific plasma receptor through which HIV gains entry to the CD4 T-cell. Identifying the primary receptor on the CD4 T-cell is essential because no further nanobiotechnological techniques can be used to further assess the T-cell-virus interactions without first identifying the plasma receptor. Thus, the identification acts as the first stepping stone which guarantee for subsequent tests on the receptor-viral ligand interactions.
Subsequent tests for further analysis of HIV-CD4 interactions at the single recepto...


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... and unbound receptors and ligands change over time. By analyzing the kinetics of the binding event, we may determine how fast the HIV gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor and if there are other cells that the CD4 receptor or HIV ligand are specific for (showing that the concentration of receptor-ligands of other cells increase over time when matched with HIV or CD4). Like previous mentioned with affinity, kinetics will help determine or verify the effectiveness of HIV treatment drugs as a drug with faster kinetics will supposedly bind faster to the HIV ligand or bind faster to the CD4 receptor quicker than the CD4 receptor or HIV ligand respectively.
The techniques used for this study are listed as follows: atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescent polarization (FP), and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS).

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