Essay on The Human Genome Project

Essay on The Human Genome Project

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The Human Genome Project (HGP), an international scientific research project, has educated the public tremendously on various topics concerning DNA and genetics. This study has been beneficial to communities alike. As stated, the HGP sought to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise from the project. In favor of achieving these goals, scientists studied the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms (Human Genome Management Information System, 2011).
The HGP exclusively provided information about the effects of DNA variations among individuals that can lead to revolutionary new ways to diagnose and treat the many disorders that affect the population. Scientists hope to someday find ways to prevent the thousands of disorders that affect the human population through the genomic research. (Human Genome Management Information System, 2011).
Genomic researchers have found out that each individual's genetic code differs slightly. Reportedly, any two human individuals are approximately 99.9% the same genetically; it is hypothesized that the most important genetic material for human functioning is encompassed in that shared set. The 0.1% difference represents about three million differences between individuals' DNA. Suggestively, most of those differences probably have no effect on phenotype, an observable trait (Feldman, 2011), and a small fraction of these differences are responsible for the genetic component of the differences in health, behavior, and other hum...


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...and other ethical issues in human population genetics.
Annual Review of Genetics, 35, 785–800.
Human Genome Management Information System (2011). About the Human Genome
Project. Oak Ridge National Laboratory
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Osier, M. V., Pakstis, A. J., Soodyall, H., Comas, D., Goldman, D., Odunsi, A., et al. (2002). A
global perspective on genetic variation and the ADH genes reveals unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium and diversity. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 84–99.
Smedley, A. (1998). Race in North America: Origin and evolution of a worldview (2nd ed.).
New York: Perseus Publishing.
Tishkoff, S. A., & Verrelli, B. C. (2003). Patterns of human genetic diversity: Implications for
human evolutionary history and disease. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 4, 293–340.

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