The Human Genome Project Commenced Essay example

The Human Genome Project Commenced Essay example

Length: 919 words (2.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The Human Genome Project commenced in 1990, with the goal of sequencing the entire human genome within 25 years. This was successfully completed in the early 2000s due to widespread research efforts and advancements in computing technology (4). With this knowledge, researchers shifted their focus to individual genes; particularly, the function of the proteins they coded for. “Gene knockout” is the general term used for synthetically inactivating a gene of interest. There are three basic approaches for gene-inactivation: [i] take a normal (wild type) gene and replace it with a nonfunctional sequence (which will be discussed below), [ii] express another allele that codes for an inhibitory protein (also known as “dominant negative” mutant proteins), which acts by either tying up substrates needed by the protein of interest, or binding to the active site of the protein of interest, and [iii] promote the destruction of the mRNA sequence transcribed from the gene of interest (for example, RNA interference) (3). The ability to knockout a particular gene of interest in a cell has proven potent in gene targeting and gene therapy (1).
There are various technologies and techniques currently available for knocking out or editing genes. One of the technologies, which is based on the second approach, is “knockout mice”. Researchers are able to breed mice that have a gene knocked out throughout its entire body. This is achieved by creating a construct of DNA containing a mutated allele, injecting it in cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells, and selecting for the cells that underwent homologous recombination (Figure 1). Then these selected ES cells are injected into early mice embryos, and transferred to a female. If a chimeric mouse is identified a...


... middle of paper ...


...ort and mucus builds up inside the cell. A study done by Schwank et al. showed they were able to utilize the CRISPR-Cas9 system to repair the CFTR locus. By double stand breaks and homologous recombination in the mutant CFTR gene of the cultured cells of a cystic fibrosis patient, they were able to correct the allele (Figure 4). This was confirmed by PCR and sequencing, and the expressed CFTR protein was observed to be fully functional (5).








CRISPR-Cas9 is a novel technique that is transforming research in biology today. Its advantageous properties compared to knockout mice, and its application in anti-cancer drug testing and genetic engineering prove that it is a potent research tool. Although there are many challenges that lie ahead, this system has great potential for application in other deadly diseases, such as HIV, as well as targeted cancer therapy (1).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Human Genome Project ( Hgp ) Essay

- The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a Multinational, collaborative research program whose goal was to complete mapping and understanding of all the genes present in the human being. The commencement of Human Genome Project began in 1988, with the support of the National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Energy (DOE). The Initial phase of the Human Genome Project (1990’s) relied on the findings and techniques such as Site-specific Restriction enzymes, positional cloning, Polymerase chain reaction, Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH ) and STS ( sequence Tagged site )determination, used in early 1970-1980’s, to study and sequence genes....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human Genome Project, Human genome]

Strong Essays
1091 words (3.1 pages)

Uses of the Human Genome Research Project Essay

- So what is a human genome and why is the government researching it. The Human genome is the sequence of roughly 20,000 genes that make up human Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or the building blocks that tell cells what to do. The government project named Human Genome Project (HGP) started in 1990’s, and is trying to unravel the 3 billion chemical base pairs in a DNA strand (http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-science/genetics-molecular-medicine/current-topics/human-genome.shtml.) DNA is made up of phosphates, sugars and amino acids, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine(C) and Guanine (G)....   [tags: Human Genome Project]

Strong Essays
1702 words (4.9 pages)

The Human Genome Project Is An International Scientific Research Project

- The Human Genome Project is an international scientific research project that had one goal: to complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. A genome is a collection of all your genes and DNA. Every human cell has about 4 thousand genes. The Human Genome Project has many advantages and disadvantages to society. It can help us advance in medicine by early detection of genetic diseases and agriculture by creating more disease resistant animals and plants. However it can also be detrimental, for instance, it may give parents a chance to pick and choose characters their children will inherit....   [tags: Genetics, DNA, Human Genome Project, Human genome]

Strong Essays
911 words (2.6 pages)

The Human Genome Project : Human Anatomy Essay

- The human genome project The human genome is a molecular arrangement of the chromosomes in the reproductive cells of the human body. For years’ doctors have been trying to figure out this blueprint for all physical and behavioural traits than an individual can pass to their offspring. Essentially the human genome is the code for building a human being. This ‘mapping’ of human anatomy has developed substantially over the years with the aid of new technology. To fully understand the Human Genome Project, we have to travel back in time to 1857, to a man called Gergor Johan Mendel....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Gene, Human Genome Project]

Strong Essays
1358 words (3.9 pages)

The Human Genome Project Essay

- Introduction The purpose of the human genome project was to select the best pairs of the genes and the desirable characteristics in the human beings to maintain the production of the organisms according to the desirable gene sequencing. This project was initiated to control the sequencing of the gene artificially [1]. The world’s largest biological plan was the human genome project as it was started on the large scale. The idea of this project was given by the researchers in 1984. The practical work started in 1990 to execute the project....   [tags: Genetics, DNA, Gene, Human Genome Project]

Strong Essays
1491 words (4.3 pages)

The Human Genome Project : A Narrative Of The Journey Of Our Species Through Time

- Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), Francis Collins expressed that the genome could be thought of as a multipurpose book. "It 's a history book - a narrative of the journey of our species through time. It 's a shop manual, with an incredibly detailed blueprint for building every human cell. And it 's a transformative textbook of medicine, with insights that will give health care providers immense new powers to treat, prevent and cure disease." This analogy is very popular in describing how intricate and detailed the human genome is....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Gene, Human Genome Project]

Strong Essays
1166 words (3.3 pages)

The Human Genome Project : A Scientific Program Essay

- Many nations across the globe have collaborated to develop the Human Genome Project; a scientific program of which focuses on the development of our genetic blueprint. In 1990, the Human Genome Project officially began in the United States, with the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The objective of the Human Genome Project is to provide an accurate template of the entire DNA sequence, including the three billion DNA (Deoxyrobosenucleic acid) base pairs that make up the complete Genome....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genome]

Strong Essays
1320 words (3.8 pages)

Essay about Morality And The Human Genome Project

- Morality and the Human Genome Project      Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society. Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil. For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information is used to explore ways to deny entry into countries, determine social class, or even who gets preferential treatment....   [tags: Science Human Genome Ethics Essays]

Strong Essays
1359 words (3.9 pages)

The Human Genome Project (HGP) Essay

- Has the Human Genome Project created viable mechanisms that enable or disable the sustainability of the human population. The definition of sustainability is “the ability to be upheld or defended” (Oxford South African Pocket Dictionary, 2006, p912.). The sustainability of the human population has been one of the most imperial factors in terms of our existence. From every realm of profession, thinkers all over the world have been looking for ideas that would give us a secure way to definitely increase our longevity....   [tags: sustainability of the human population]

Strong Essays
3296 words (9.4 pages)

The Human Genome Project Essay

- The Human Genome Project Now more than ever it is not uncommon to hear of scientific barriers being crossed. This is seen through, "a scientific research effort . . . currently under way which is unlike anything ever before attempted. International in its scope, it is enormously expensive and, if successful, could lead to our ultimate control of human disease, aging, and death. It is nothing short of a revolution against the way science has traditionally progressed"1 . This statement of Thomas Lee refers to a massive scientific undertaking known as the human genome project, an endeavor that aims to discover each and every intricacy of human genetics....   [tags: Genome Science biology Essays]

Strong Essays
2348 words (6.7 pages)