Many nations across the globe have collaborated to develop the Human Genome Project; a scientific program of which focuses on the development of our genetic blueprint. In 1990, the Human Genome Project officially began in the United States, with the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The objective of the Human Genome Project is to provide an accurate template of the entire DNA sequence, including the three billion DNA (Deoxyrobosenucleic acid) base pairs that make up the complete Genome. This goal also includes identifying the 20-25 thousand genes that the genome consists of, and locating those genes along the DNA sequence. The genome project serves as great deal of importance in the medical field, particularly in pathology. By increasing our understanding of our genetic makeup, scientists are able to draw correlations between disease and their origin. Through discovering the relationships between the genetic source of various diseases and the genes (DNA) involved, scientists are not only able to diagnose diseases earlier, but are also able to treat and prevent them.
The Human Genome Project has allowed health care workers to perform early detection of disease, which provides the chance of performing early prevention strategies and receiving early treatment if the diseased gene is expressed. Many genes have been identified by researchers to cause particular types of diseases. For example, the famous actress, Angelina Jolie, was tested in 2013 for the mutation of the BRCA1 and the BRCA2 gene that are commonly known to cause breast cancer. The findings were positive, and thus this early detection allowed her the opportunity to prevent the cancer development by getting a double mastectomy...
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...can be argued that geographical location affects the susceptibility of lung cancer as well, as smoking is far more prevalent in some more developed countries then in others. On the other hand, in third world countries such as Kenya, people are far more susceptible to parasitic diseases. Malaria is a parasitic disease that is caused by the injection of a parasite called plasmodium into red blood cells from mosquitos. Infection and destruction of red blood cells is central to this parasite 's reproduction and survival. Through the examples stated above, it can be easily noted that disease is not only caused by genetics, but also through diet, exercise, air quality, chemicals, parasites, and even location. Although the genome project has found vast correlations between genes and diseases, it cannot in fact diagnose every disease, because some are not of genetic origin.
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