In addition to Freud’s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological, cognitive, behavioral and systems model. Even though these theories differ they all contain the same basic assumptions. People will continue to grow. People exhibit both stability and flux as they pass through life. People are holistic, of mind body and spirit. Lastly, individual people must be understood in the context of relationships and setting (Cash White, 2012).
There are three main concepts in the theory of Biological human development. Gesell’s maturation theory is that a child will develop according to a predetermined biological schedule. “There is an inner timetable that determines the readiness to do things” (Crain, 2011, p. 24). Despite efforts of parents trying to push their child into developing more quickly, the child will begin to develop cephalocaudaly (head to foot) when their nervous system has adequately matured. Although most children develop through the same sequences there may be a variance in the speed of growth (Crain, 2011). Gesell also believed that babies have the ability to self-regulate, given the opportunity they will be able to work out a stable schedule (Crain, 2011). Babies will cry when they are in need and tending to those needs on their organic time clock versus the caretakers’ own preconceived agenda will reassure self-regulated growth (Crain, 2011). In addition to biological maturation is the study of behavior within an evolutionary perspective. Ethology, most influenced by Darwin, studies the tremendously slow changes that transpire over many generations (Crain, 2011). Darwin’s theory on natural selection determines which species are fittest to live long e...
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... the majority of the human development theories.
Cash White, K. (2011). Foundation of human development. . Warner Pacific College.
Craig, G. J., & Dunn, W. L. (2010). Introduction to human devleopment. In J. Mosher, & S. Frail (Eds.), Understanding human develpment (2nd ed., pp. 2-32). New Jersey: Pearson.
Crain, W. (2011). Early Theroies. In J. Marshall, C. Campanella, & J. Mosher (Eds.), Theories of development (6th ed., pp. 3-21). New Jersey: Pearson.
Kurt lewin. (n.d.). In Kurt Lewin. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/Kurt_Lewin
Social ecological model. (n.d.). In Social ecological model-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_ecological_model
Walonick, D. S. (1993). General systems theory. Retrieved from http://www.statpac.org/walonick/systems-theory-htm
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