The actions carried out by speaking are speech acts and they are meant to be examined by conversation analysis, which was introduced by sociologists Harvey Sacks, Emanuel Schegloff and Gail Jefferson. The crucial point about everyday talk is 'that it is dialogic' (Allington and Mayor, 2012, p. 8), therefore, each participant's utterance is aimed toward other participant. Bakhin (1952),quoted in Allington and Mayor (2012), maintains that it is especially in conversation, where people regularly 'refer to what people have said and that they also expect 'what they might say next' and 'a...
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...elationships are pointed quite clearly is 'in the terms' that 'people use to address each other' (Allington and Mayor, 2012, p. 18). Allington and Mayor (2012) provide a range of examples considering terms of addressing. One of these examples is pointing out at the 'classic example' from the 1960s involving an African-American doctor, which was insulted three times by the policeman and according to Dr Poussaint's, quoted from Ervin-Tripp (1969, pp. 93, 98), his own experience of the encounter was 'profound humiliation' when he says 'For the moment, my manhood had been ripped from me.' It is also noted by Allington and Mayor (2012) that commercial companies in the UK tend to address their clients with informal terms,
Dependently on a setting, relationship, age, gender, social class, ethnicity, place of origin, people employ different conversational styles.
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